• Critical Reflections Papers.

Students will complete a written assignment (2-3 pages, APA Style)  that  will judgmentally appraise the readings from Chapter 1 and 2 in your textbook. This assignment is intended to help you assessment, examination, and spread over the readings to your Health Care Ethics, as well as become the foundation for all of your remaining assignments.

1

Chapter 1

Theory of Health Care
Ethics

3

Why Study Ethics?

• Because health care is changing, you need
tools for making necessary and difficult
decisions.

• It will help you better understand patients,
fellow professionals, and the system in
general.

• It will assist you in building and maintaining
your career.

4

Types of Ethics

• Normative ethics
– Is the study of what is right and wrong.

• Metaethics
– Is the study of ethical concepts and theories.

5

Types of Normative Ethical Theories

• Authority-based
• Egoistic
• Natural law
• Deontological
• Teleological
• Virtue

6

Ethical Relativism

• Ethical relativism purports that there is no
absolute theory for ethics.

• However, this lack of a complete theory does
not mean everything is relative.

• People need to make rational decisions about
ethics-based issues.

• Therefore, ethics theories are useful.

7

Egoism as Ethics Theory

• Egoism is based on the idea that one’s self
interest is the basis his or her ethics decisions.

• Theory is not helpful in health care ethics
because professionals are taught to set aside
self-interest.

• The interests of the patient should come first.

8

Authority-based Ethics Theory

• Decisions about ethics (right or wrong) are
based on central authority such as in a
theology or an ideology.

• For health care ethics, there may difficulty
deciding which authority is the correct one.

• However, knowing this view of ethics helps
with understanding patients and health policy
decisions.

9

Virtue Ethics Theory

• Is founded in the writings of Aristotle.
• Everything moves from potentiality to

actuality.
• Character development allows you to

actualize your highest good.
• Eudaimonia should be sought as the highest

good.

10

Virtue Ethics Theory

• Eudaimonia means that you seek to build your
character and increase virtue.

• Professional education seeks to develop
people of high character.

• People who work toward eudaimonia become
persons of practical wisdom.

11

Virtue Ethics Theory

• Principles of ethics can help to define your
character and assist with your actions. See
Chapter Two for more information.

• Virtue ethics is criticized as being elitist.
• Virtue ethics requires the

1

Chapter 2

Principles of Health Care
Ethics

3

Principles of Ethics

• Extends your foundation of ethics.
• Gives you ways to apply ethics to practical

situations.
• The four most often used in health care are

nonmaleficience, beneficence, autonomy, and
justice.

4

Nonmaleficience

• Sometimes this is translated as “first do no
harm”.

• Ethical theories define harm in different ways.
• Consequentialist says harm is that which

prevents good.
• Natural law says harm is something that limits

our potential.

5

Nonmaleficence

• Deontologists say harm is something that
prevents you from doing your moral duty.

• Virtue ethicists say harm is something that
leads you away from practicing high moral
character.

• Ethical egoists say that harm is something that
goes against your self interest.

6

Harm in the Clinical Setting

• Harm is something that negatively affects
patients.

• Clinically, we think of physical harm but other
harm is possible.

• Harm is also caused by negligence.
• Harm can be caused by violating autonomy.

7

Beneficience

• Beneficence comes from the Latin word for
good- “bene”- and means to benefit.

• Requires a decision to engage in beneficent
acts or to be altruistic.

• It is a fundamental principle of health care
practice.

• What theories support beneficence?

8

Health care and Beneficience

• The standard of altruism is higher for health
care professionals.

• Altruism is expected.
• Beneficence sometimes is extended to

paternalism when the health care professional
makes decisions for the good of the patient.

• What is this called?

9

Autonomy

• Autonomy means that you can rule yourself.
• It implies a respect for others.
• In health care, we have a duty to treat, but not

to judge.
• What are the conditions necessary for

autonomy in health care?

10

Specific Competence

• Is defined as the ability to do some things but
not others. So, you can be competent in a
limited way.

• In issues where a person is not competent, the
concept of substitute judgment can be used.
This is also involves the idea of reasonable
person’s decision.

11

Specific Competence

• Coercion can also affect a person’s ability to
exercise autonomy.

• Issues of competence

1

Chapter 2

Principles of Health Care
Ethics

3

Principles of Ethics

• Extends your foundation of ethics.
• Gives you ways to apply ethics to practical

situations.
• The four most often used in health care are

nonmaleficience, beneficence, autonomy, and
justice.

4

Nonmaleficience

• Sometimes this is translated as “first do no
harm”.

• Ethical theories define harm in different ways.
• Consequentialist says harm is that which

prevents good.
• Natural law says harm is something that limits

our potential.

5

Nonmaleficence

• Deontologists say harm is something that
prevents you from doing your moral duty.

• Virtue ethicists say harm is something that
leads you away from practicing high moral
character.

• Ethical egoists say that harm is something that
goes against your self interest.

6

Harm in the Clinical Setting

• Harm is something that negatively affects
patients.

• Clinically, we think of physical harm but other
harm is possible.

• Harm is also caused by negligence.
• Harm can be caused by violating autonomy.

7

Beneficience

• Beneficence comes from the Latin word for
good- “bene”- and means to benefit.

• Requires a decision to engage in beneficent
acts or to be altruistic.

• It is a fundamental principle of health care
practice.

• What theories support beneficence?

8

Health care and Beneficience

• The standard of altruism is higher for health
care professionals.

• Altruism is expected.
• Beneficence sometimes is extended to

paternalism when the health care professional
makes decisions for the good of the patient.

• What is this called?

9

Autonomy

• Autonomy means that you can rule yourself.
• It implies a respect for others.
• In health care, we have a duty to treat, but not

to judge.
• What are the conditions necessary for

autonomy in health care?

10

Specific Competence

• Is defined as the ability to do some things but
not others. So, you can be competent in a
limited way.

• In issues where a person is not competent, the
concept of substitute judgment can be used.
This is also involves the idea of reasonable
person’s decision.

11

Specific Competence

• Coercion can also affect a person’s ability to
exercise autonomy.

• Issues of competence

1

Chapter 2

Principles of Health Care
Ethics

3

Principles of Ethics

• Extends your foundation of ethics.
• Gives you ways to apply ethics to practical

situations.
• The four most often used in health care are

nonmaleficience, beneficence, autonomy, and
justice.

4

Nonmaleficience

• Sometimes this is translated as “first do no
harm”.

• Ethical theories define harm in different ways.
• Consequentialist says harm is that which

prevents good.
• Natural law says harm is something that limits

our potential.

5

Nonmaleficence

• Deontologists say harm is something that
prevents you from doing your moral duty.

• Virtue ethicists say harm is something that
leads you away from practicing high moral
character.

• Ethical egoists say that harm is something that
goes against your self interest.

6

Harm in the Clinical Setting

• Harm is something that negatively affects
patients.

• Clinically, we think of physical harm but other
harm is possible.

• Harm is also caused by negligence.
• Harm can be caused by violating autonomy.

7

Beneficience

• Beneficence comes from the Latin word for
good- “bene”- and means to benefit.

• Requires a decision to engage in beneficent
acts or to be altruistic.

• It is a fundamental principle of health care
practice.

• What theories support beneficence?

8

Health care and Beneficience

• The standard of altruism is higher for health
care professionals.

• Altruism is expected.
• Beneficence sometimes is extended to

paternalism when the health care professional
makes decisions for the good of the patient.

• What is this called?

9

Autonomy

• Autonomy means that you can rule yourself.
• It implies a respect for others.
• In health care, we have a duty to treat, but not

to judge.
• What are the conditions necessary for

autonomy in health care?

10

Specific Competence

• Is defined as the ability to do some things but
not others. So, you can be competent in a
limited way.

• In issues where a person is not competent, the
concept of substitute judgment can be used.
This is also involves the idea of reasonable
person’s decision.

11

Specific Competence

• Coercion can also affect a person’s ability to
exercise autonomy.

• Issues of competence

1

Chapter 2

Principles of Health Care
Ethics

3

Principles of Ethics

• Extends your foundation of ethics.
• Gives you ways to apply ethics to practical

situations.
• The four most often used in health care are

nonmaleficience, beneficence, autonomy, and
justice.

4

Nonmaleficience

• Sometimes this is translated as “first do no
harm”.

• Ethical theories define harm in different ways.
• Consequentialist says harm is that which

prevents good.
• Natural law says harm is something that limits

our potential.

5

Nonmaleficence

• Deontologists say harm is something that
prevents you from doing your moral duty.

• Virtue ethicists say harm is something that
leads you away from practicing high moral
character.

• Ethical egoists say that harm is something that
goes against your self interest.

6

Harm in the Clinical Setting

• Harm is something that negatively affects
patients.

• Clinically, we think of physical harm but other
harm is possible.

• Harm is also caused by negligence.
• Harm can be caused by violating autonomy.

7

Beneficience

• Beneficence comes from the Latin word for
good- “bene”- and means to benefit.

• Requires a decision to engage in beneficent
acts or to be altruistic.

• It is a fundamental principle of health care
practice.

• What theories support beneficence?

8

Health care and Beneficience

• The standard of altruism is higher for health
care professionals.

• Altruism is expected.
• Beneficence sometimes is extended to

paternalism when the health care professional
makes decisions for the good of the patient.

• What is this called?

9

Autonomy

• Autonomy means that you can rule yourself.
• It implies a respect for others.
• In health care, we have a duty to treat, but not

to judge.
• What are the conditions necessary for

autonomy in health care?

10

Specific Competence

• Is defined as the ability to do some things but
not others. So, you can be competent in a
limited way.

• In issues where a person is not competent, the
concept of substitute judgment can be used.
This is also involves the idea of reasonable
person’s decision.

11

Specific Competence

• Coercion can also affect a person’s ability to
exercise autonomy.

• Issues of competence