Chapter 15: Emerging Infectious Diseases

A neighbor, who is 3 months pregnant, asks to talk to you because she has felt tired for the last 2 days, has a headache, a rash, and does not feel like eating. You take her vital signs and find that she has a low-grade fever. She has recently traveled to an area where there is risk for Zika virus disease.

To what could your neighbor have been exposed, and how could the exposure have occurred?

What advice would you give your neighbor?

Chapter 16: Violence and Abuse

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Chapter Highlights #1

Overview of violence in U.S. communities

School violence

Mandatory reporting of elder abuse, child maltreatment, and abuse of people with disabilities

Intimate partner violence (IPV)

Health consequences of exposure to IPV in children

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Chapter Highlights #2

Model of care for victims of intentional crimes

IPV as a major women’s health problem, including impact on pregnancy

Screening and intervention in IPV

Risk and lethality assessment in IPV

Role of healthcare providers: assessing for and intervening in violence and abuse

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Violence

Intentional

Act committed by a person or persons against another person or persons in which there is a conscious choice to act violently

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Types of Violence

Guns

School violence

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Question #1

Is the following statement true or false?

Violence against women is a form of gender‐based violence that can result in physical harm only.

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Answer to Question #1

False

Violence against women is a form of gender‐based violence that can result in physical, sexual, or psychological harm for both the direct victims and also their dependents (children).

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Incidence and Prevalence

Incidence: the number of cases of disease with an onset during a prescribed period of time; often expressed as a rate

Prevalence: number of cases of a disease, infected persons, or people with some other attribute present during a particular interval of time; often expressed as a rate

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Chapter 15: Emerging
Infectious Diseases

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Chapter Highlights

Emerging versus reemerging infectious diseases

Factors that influence the emergence/reemergence of infectious diseases

Recent emerging/reemerging infectious diseases

Prevention and control of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases

Reemergence of vaccine‐preventable diseases

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Question #1

Is the following statement true or false?

Factors that influence the emergence or reemergence of infectious diseases are multiple, complex, and interrelated.

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Answer to Question #1

True

Rationale: Factors that influence the emergence or reemergence of infectious diseases are multiple, complex, and interrelated.

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Emerging Infectious Disease

A newly identified clinically distinct infectious disease or the reappearance (or reemergence) of a known infectious disease after its decline with an incidence that is increasing in a certain geographic area or in a specific population

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Factors That Influence Emerging Infectious Diseases

Microbial adaptation and change

Human susceptibility to infection

Climate, changing ecosystems, and human behavior

Travel, technology, and industry

Lack of political will and breakdown of public health infrastructure

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Question #2

Is the following statement true or false?

Epidemics and pandemics can place long‐term demands on healthcare systems.

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Answer to Question #2

False

Rationale: Epidemics and pandemics can place sudden and intense demands on healthcare systems.

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