Course reflection assignment is part of the portfolio that students must complete during last class of the program. This assignment is due on week #15. Course reflection assignment has a value of 100 points. It accounts for 20% of the final grade. 

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Running head: HOW CAN PTSD BE TREATED

4

TREATMENT FOR PTSD

Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Institution

Name Zoraida Seoane

Lecturer Crisis Intervention

Date 09/23/2020

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an ailment triggered by a physical or emotionally tragic event (Foa et al., 2020). The symptoms may include dreams, flashbacks, mental or physical distress cued by situations similar to the event (Acute Stress Disorder). Other symptoms caused by ASD may consist of insomnia, lack of concentration, poor social skills, or lack of appetite. For example, an accident survivor may avoid using vehicles, thus slowing down daily activities like going to work. Though both children and adults can experience PTSD, the most affected people may include post-war veterans, sexual assault victims, and accident survivors.

PTSD treatment comes in many forms like medication, Cognitive Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Out of all these, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) stands as the most effective treatment, in my opinion. CBT is the psycho-social therapy given to patients to battle the malicious thought process that distorts functionality (David et al., 2018). This method can not only be used for PTSD but also for a variety of mental disorders like depression and anxiety. We can further subdivide CBT into various types.

Firstly, Cognitive Processing Therapy is used to help the patient understand and reconceptualize the traumatic event to reduce ongoing negative effects. This method begins by educating the patient about the reasons behind this approach. The patient is then requested to re-manifest the event in detail through writing or verbal explanation. After this, the patient, with the doctor’s help, come up with modified beliefs regarding the event. This treatment method is only administered to emotionally stable patients as it uses a more head-on approach to resolve the situation.

Another form of CBT is Habit Reversal Training. HBT addresses the unwanted repetitive behaviors or habits developed from the traumatic experience. These may include twitchy neck or biting nails. In this case, patients go through awareness training where a patient tries to identify repetitive habits. The therapist then recommends behaviors that the patient can use to counter bad habits, known as Competing Response Training. The patient is also exposed to motivation, such as listing a set of goals to achieve or being around people who can encourage improvement (Salimi et al., 2016). Relaxation training is also used to reduce stress, which is seen as a major caus

Running head: HEALTHCARE 1

HEALTHCARE 2

Social Determinants Obstacle to Home-Based Care

Student’s Name Zoraida Seoane

Institutional Affiliations FNU

Social Determinants

Health is one of the most expensive elements of human beings. People try to ensure that there is good health in their environments such as homes, workplace, schools, neighborhoods and communities. Individuals make effort to remain healthy such as not smoking, eating a balanced diet and exercise among others (Healthy people, 2020). However, it is not possible to prevent oneself from all the risk factors in a given environment. Natural calamities are examples of situations when unhealthy circumstance cannot be avoided. Thus, it is important to understand social determinants and ways they affect home care, case and case management. According to healthy people 2020, the five areas covering social determinant include Economic stability, education, social and community context, health and health care as well as neighborhood and built environment (Healthy people, 2020). However, determinants that direct limit home care, case and case management are economic stability, neighborhood and built environment as well as community context.

Economic stability

The economic status of a person determines the ability to pay for home care, case and case management. People that have good jobs can pay for themselves or their family members under home-based care. Food security is achieved when a person has a well-paying job and it is only after affording food that one can pay for other health-related services (Healthy people, 2020). Homeless people due to their economic status do not have a place where home care, case and case management can happen. Nurses who are in the frontline in home-based care need to be paid and poverty can be a barrier to home care, case and case management.

Social and Community Context

The social and community context makes up the external environment of a person. People have been facing various problems dealing with society, where they live. Issues such as discrimination have been affecting home care, case and case management for the minorities in the given community (Healthy people, 2020). Therefore, a minority may suffer when an organization refuse to offer their services or when they are not offered quality healthcare services. Social cohesion also affects people’s ability to get home care, case and case management. Communities have been failing to ensure social and health welfare for all the members.

Neighborhood and Built Environment

A neighborhood represents the environm

Running head: PSYCHOLOGY 1

PSYCHOLOGY 2

Family Crisis Intervention

Student’s Name Zoraida Seoane

Institutional Affiliations FNU

Infidelity

Families go through different problems associated with social and economic factors. One of the problems leading to family crisis and divorce is infidelity. Infidelity is a situation where one of the partners in a relationship marriage is unfaithful. Many people do not take infidelity lightly causing a strain in a relationship (Bahnaru & Runcan, 2019). Infidelity is devastating because one feels betrayed by a person who should be very important. Although infidelity ends relationships, other couples manage to repair the relationship even after unfaithfulness. The partners repair some relationships while others need a therapist to intervene. According to research, relationships that survive infidelity and seek help from a therapist become stronger (Momeni et al. 2018). People regard infidelity differently. Some people may find their partner watching porn and refer to that as cheating, but most of them refer to having sexual affairs outside wedlock as infidelity. Therefore, to solve the issues of unfaithfulness, couples should understand how it hurts a relationship.


Effects of Infidelity on Family

Infidelity has several negative effects on the family. First, both the infidel and the partner lose trust between them, which is fundamental for a long time relationship. Many times cheaters blame their acts on their partner, but their actions cannot be justified. Secondly, people respond differently to emotional pain including property damage (Momeni et al. 2018). In the past, cases of a person burning his or her house after finding out the partner cheated have been common. Property damage can hurt the family. Next, children are the main loser of a family that is struggling with infidelity. As mentioned earlier, infidelity can end a relationship. If a relationship is blessed with children, they will suffer the effects of a broken family (Bahnaru & Runcan, 2019). Sometimes, children blame themselves for family problems, which may harm their psychological and social affairs. Individuals who have gone through a divorce due to infidelity may have an emotional scar that may affect getting into another relationship.



Intervention

Different interventions can be used to address the issue of

Running head: BEREAVEMENT AND GRIEF 1

BEREAVEMENT AND GRIEF 3

Personal Grief

Student’s Name Zoraida Seoane

Institutional Affiliations FNU

Complicated Grief

Most of the time, people go through grief after they have lost someone special. Grief is a natural way that people have been responding after one dies. People do not grief in the same way. The common ways of grief include anger, guilt, numbness and sorrow. However, some people find it difficult to overcome grief even as time pass. The situation where a person is unable to overcome sorrow is known as complicated grief. In other words, complicated grief is known as bereavement disorder (Crunk et al. 2017). People with bereavement disorder have a tough time overcoming grief and resuming normal life. The main factors leading to complicated grief include not accepting loss, denying pain, inability to adjust to new normal and resistance to a new relationship among others. A person who is unable to go through the stages of grief for more than a year shows signs of complicated grief.

Signs of complicated grief

Several behaviors could be an indicator of complicated grief in a person. One of the signs is intense sorrow after a loved one has died. For example, one has encountered people who never stop talking in sorrow about a person who died many years ago. Such a person can make people in a given environment not mention the person who died. Secondly, some people may stop focusing on anything else in their environment other than the loved one who died (Robinaugh et al. 2016). A person is very focused on the remembrance of a person who died, limiting the normal activities in life. For example, one can miss a friend’s wedding to go visit a loved one’s cemetery. Lastly, some people lack the purpose of life after someone close has died. When people are unable to move on from a person who has died this is an indication of complicated grief.

References

Crunk, A. E., Burke, L. A., & Robinson III, E. M. (2017). Complicated grief: An evolving theoretical landscape. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(2), 226-233.

Robinaugh, D. J., Millner, A. J., & McNally, R. J. (2016). Identifying highly influential nodes in the complicated grief network. Journal of abnormal psychology, 125(6), 747.

Running head: EPIDEMIOLOGY 1

EPIDEMIOLOGY 4

Epidemiology

Author’s Name: Zoraida Seoane

Institutional Affiliation: Florida National University

Course : Community Nurse

i) Is Jeff at risk? If so, for what?

Yes- because he has increased rate of obesity, which means he is subjected to obesity and related chronic diseases which is almost familiar to children and youth who live in urban areas. (Corvalán,2008). Jeff has a risk for the number of conditions, including the following: diabetes- type 2 diabetes was mostly known as adult-onset. Diabetes nowadays is a challenge to young children and adolescents research which was done by Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) got an estimation of 1 in 3 children born in 2000 will get diabetes in future. Heart disease mostly atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries) research has shown it begins in the early stage of children and also adolescent with risk factors. These diseases mostly lead to a heart attack which can be a cause of death. High blood pressure, also known as Hypertension, is caused by overweight due to straining of the heart. Metabolic syndrome- between 25 to 40 percent who have overweight are likely to suffer from these diseases, which includes: abnormal lipids, high blood pressure, insulin resistance and obesity.

ii) Utilizing the Guidelines for High Blood Pressure in Adults (American College of Cardiology, 2017), what is Jeff’s future risk from adolescence through adulthood?

Jeff has the following risk in adulthood: Hypertension which highly leads to death. The research was done in 2010 by the United States, which gives evidence that high BP is leading to death and disability-adjusted life-years worldwide and also had more CVD death than any other form of CVD risk factor. Even 50 percent of death from coronary heart diseases (CHD) and also stroke occurred to people with Hypertension. In North, Manhattan study has shown that a high number of women (32%) affected to Hypertension compared to men (19%) (Aboyans,2012). Epidemiological studies have also carried out research which shows high levels of both the SBP and DPB are mostly associated with CVD risk but independently.

iii) How do epidemiologic data define Hypertension in a child of Jeff’s age?

Defining blood pressure of a child who is Jeff’s age has been described as the elevation as ≥95th percentile (Daniels,2016). Use of percentile instead of absolute blood pressure measurement is most important to young children because of blood pressure change with growth and development during childhood, mostly during puber

1

Running head: TREATMENT FOR PTSD

2

TREATMENT FOR PTSD

Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Institution

Name Zoraida Seoane

Lecturer Crisis Intervention

Date 09/23/2020


Most Effective Treatment for PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder triggered by a physical or emotionally tragic event. (Foa et al., 2020) The symptoms may include dreams, flashbacks, mental or physical distress cued by situations similar to the event (Acute Stress Disorder). Other symptoms caused by ASD may consist of insomnia, lack of concentration, poor social skills, or lack of appetite. For example, an accident survivor may avoid using vehicles, thus slowing down daily activities like going to work. Though both children and adults can experience PTSD, the most affected people may include post-war veterans, sexual assault victims, and accident survivors.

PTSD treatment comes in many forms like medication, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, prolonged exposure therapy, and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Out of all these, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) stands as the most effective treatment, in my opinion. CBT is the psycho-social therapy given to patients to battle the malicious thought process that distorts functionality (David et al., 2018). This method can not only be used for PTSD but also for a variety of mental disorders like depression and anxiety. We can further subdivide CBT into various types.

Firstly, Cognitive Processing Therapy is used to help the patient understand and reconceptualize the traumatic event to reduce ongoing negative effects. This method begins by educating the patient about the reasons behind this approach. The patient is then requested to re-manifest the event in detail through writing or verbal explanation. After this, the patient, with the doctor’s help, come up with modified beliefs regarding the event. This treatment method is only administered to emotionally stable patients as it uses a more head-on approach to resolve the situation.

Another form of CBT is Habit Reversal Training. HBT addresses the unwanted repetitive behaviors or habits developed from the traumatic experience. These may include twitchy neck or biting nails. In this case, patients go through awareness training where a patient tries to identify repetitive habits. The therapist then recommends behaviors that the patient can use to counter bad habits, known as Competing Response Training. The patient is also exposed to motivation, such as listing a set of goals to achieve or being around people who can encourage improvement. (Salimi et al., 2016). Relaxation training is al

Running head: WEEK 11 CRISIS INTERVENTION 1

WEEK 11 CRISIS INTERVENTION 4


Week 11 Crisis Intervention

Student Name Zoraida Seoane

Institution FNU

Violent Behavior in Institutions

The aggression that human service employees face is persistent in the community and it contributes to the rise of crime rates. Violence in the work place may be classified as whichever violent act against property or a person (Abderhalden et al., 2016). Regarding behavior, the aggression frequently leads to harassments, threats, intimidating actions, or other disruptive actions. There are several precipitating factors regarding violent behavior in institutions. These factors allude to particular triggers or events regarding the inception of the present problem. Some of the key factors include substance abuse, deinstitutionalization, and mental illness, among others. Substance abuse is among the main causes of aggressive behaviors against workers. This is particularly so due to the hostile nature regarding substance abusers (Andersen & Teicher, 2015). Drug abuse including alcohol, can interfere with the brain system hence causing an individual on high risk to get involved in violent and aggressive behavior. Narcotics, psychomotor stimulants, alcohol, and hallucinogens, considerably diverge from one another in the manner in which they relate to different types of aggressive and violent behavior.

Mental illness is another major precipitating factor. According to research regarding mental cases, a large number exhibit violent behavior. Patients who have conditions linked to mental sickness, for instance head injuries, brain illnesses, and dementia, have the probability of being aggressive towards the professionals who attend to them (Abderhalden et al., 2016). Patients suffering from personality disorders also exhibit violent behavior due to their anger.

Deinstitutionalization is another factor that increases the level of violence against mental health workforce (Fakhourya & Priebe, 2017). Previously, there used to be controlled environments in managing mental and violent cases. However, due to deinstitutionalization, the establishment of various institutions which handle mental cases for instance daycare, and warehouse amenities has taken place. Majority of these establishments lack adequate members of staff and appropriate follow up with regard to care. Consequently, this situation has created an environment for increased aggression by patients towards professionals.

References

Abderhalden, C., Needham, I., Dassen, T., Halfens, R., Haug, H., Fischer, J. (2016). Structured risk assessment and violence in acute psychiatric wards: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychi

Chapter 10: Cultural Competence: Awareness, Sensitivity, and Respect

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Chapter Highlights

Culture in community settings

Cross-cultural nursing

Cultural competence and related concepts

How culture affects health

Cultural health assessment

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Question #1

Is the following statement true or false?

Culture is static, private, and inherited.

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Answer to Question #1

False

Rationale: Culture is dynamic, shared, and learned.

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Culture and Nursing

Culture—knowledge, values, practices, customs, and beliefs of a group

Properties of culture

Dynamic, not static

Shared, not private

Learned, not inherited

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Question #2

Is the following statement true or false?

Cultural competence is an attitude of openness to, respect for, and curiosity about different cultural values and traditions, and ideally includes a broader critical analysis of power relations affecting health disparities.

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Answer to Question #2

True

Rationale: Cultural competence is an attitude of openness to, respect for, and curiosity about different cultural values and traditions, and ideally includes a broader critical analysis of power relations affecting health disparities. For community health nurses, it necessitates familiarizing oneself with cultures that are represented in the communities they serve.

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Cross-cultural Nursing

Cross-cultural or transcultural nursing—any nursing encounter in which the client and nurse are from different cultures

Cultural competence—considering cultural aspects of health, illness, and treatment for each client or community, as well as doing so at each stage of the nursing process

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Question #3

Is the following statement true or false?

Advocates for groups that have been sociopolitically marginalized promote “cultural safety,” the ideal of considering cultural aspects of groups while working against assimilationism and repression.

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Answer to Question #3

True

Ratio

Chapter 11: Community Assessment

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1

Chapter Highlights

Components of a community assessment

Defining a community

Frameworks of community assessment

Different approaches to community assessment

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2

Question #1

Is the following statement true or false?

Community assessment includes examination of biologic, psychological, and sociocultural influences of the environment that surrounds a specific group of people.

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3

Answer to Question #1

True

Rationale: Community assessment includes examination of biologic, psychological, and sociocultural influences of the environment that surrounds a specific group of people.

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

4

Community

Geopolitical, sharing geographic boundaries and governing structures

Phenomenologic, sharing common interests or beliefs

Communities of solution, formed by a group of people to address common interests, beliefs, or needs

A society, nation, or international or global communities

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5

Defining the Community and Its Boundaries

Geopolitical communities

Phenomenologic communities

Societal, national, or international communities

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6

Community Assessment

Community assessment includes examination of biologic, psychological, and sociocultural influences of the environment that surrounds a specific group of people.

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7

Windshield Survey

Observation of a community while driving a car or riding public transit to collect data for a community assessment

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8

Question #2

Is the following statement true or false?

The functional health status approach uses
a retrospective historical approach to understand cultural changes over time to provide information for future initiatives.

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9

Answer to Question #2

False

Rationale: The functional health status approach evaluates health patterns in the co

Chapter 6: Epidemiology:
The Science of Prevention

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Chapter Highlights

Defining epidemiology

Development of epidemiology as a science

Epidemiologic conceptual frameworks

Applying epidemiologic principles in practice

Assessment of health needs and assets

Using assessment data for planning and implementing interventions

Promoting healthy lifestyles

Preventing and controlling outbreaks

Contributing to a safe and healthy environment

Evaluating the effectiveness of health services

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Question #1

Is the following statement true or false?

Epidemic—an outbreak that occurs when there is an increased incidence of a disease beyond that which is normally found in the population

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Answer to Question #1

True

Rationale: Epidemic—an outbreak that occurs when there is an increased incidence of a disease beyond that which is normally found in the population.

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Defining Epidemiology #1

Study of the distribution and determinants of states of health and illness in human populations; used both as a research methodology for studying states of health and illness, and as a body of knowledge that results from the study of a specific state of health or illness

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

Defining Epidemiology #2

Epidemic—an outbreak that occurs when there is an increased incidence of a disease beyond that which is normally found in the population

Rates—the primary measurement used to describe either the occurrence or the existence of a specific state of health or illness

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Question #2

Who is perhaps the best known epidemiologist of the 19th century?

John Graunt

William Farr

John Snow

Florence Nightingale

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Covid 19 [Type here]

Covid 19 8

Research project

Covid 19

Student’s Name Zoraida Seoane

Institutional Affiliations FNU

1. Covid 19 are an enormous group of infections that can cause disease in creatures or people. In people there are a few known Covid that cause respiratory contaminations. These Covid range from the basic virus to more extreme sicknesses, for example, serious intense respiratory disorder (SARS), Middle East respiratory condition (MERS), and COVID-19.

,Another infection in people causing respiratory disease which can be spread from individual to-individual. Right off the bat in the flare-up, numerous patients were accounted for to have a connection to a huge fish and live creature market, be that as it may, later cases with no connection to the market affirmed individual to-individual transmission of the illness. Moreover, travel-related exportation of cases has happened.

Transmission

Coronavirus is essentially sent from individual to-individual through respiratory beads. These beads are delivered when somebody with COVID-19 sniffles, hacks, or talks. Irresistible beads can land in the mouths or noses of individuals who are close by or potentially be breathed in into the lungs. An actual separation of in any event 1 meter (3 ft) between people is proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to keep away from disease, albeit some WHO part states have suggested keeping up more prominent separations at whatever point possible1. Respiratory beads can arrive on hands, articles or surfaces around the individual when they hack or talk, and individuals would then be able to get contaminated with COVID-19 from contacting hands, items or surfaces with beads and afterward contacting their eyes, nose, or mouth. Ongoing information recommend that there can be transmission of COVID-19 through beads of those with gentle manifestations or the individuals who don’t feel ill2. Current information don’t uphold long reach airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, for example, seen with measles or tuberculosis. Short-range inward breath of vaporizers is an opportunities for COVID-19, likewise with numerous respiratory microorganisms. Nonetheless, this can only with significant effort be recognized from “bead” transmission dependent on e