Translating Theory Into Practice


When water is in a solid state, particles are packed in a rigid pattern, conforming to the shape of its container. As the water turns into a liquid, the particles regain their fluidity, moving as the other particles around them begin to shift. Kurt Lewin’s change theory is much like the changing state of water. Applying this theory, Lewin describes workplaces as being frozen in their procedures. In this state, it is impossible for change to occur successfully because people are “frozen.” Informaticists must recognize this rigid culture and begin to implement strategies that will unfreeze the opinions and procedures of the setting. According to Lewin, only then will staff begin to accept new processes over old ones.


This process of moving from “freezing” to “unfreezing” can be a turbulent one. In fact, many nurses have equated this to “working in slush.” By applying theories and frameworks developed by Lewin and others, nurse informaticists can better facilitate informatics implementations. In this Discussion, you explore how theories and conceptual frameworks can be applied to informatics implementations.


To prepare:


  • Review this week’s media presentation, Theories and Conceptual Frameworks, and consider how a nurse informaticist can use theories to guide informatics initiatives. What are the benefits of using theories?
  • Review the article “Organization-Wide Adoption of Computerized Provider Order Entry Systems: A Study Based on Diffusion of Innovations Theory” in this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how Roger’s diffusion of innovation theory impacted the adoption of the informatics system.
  • Conduct research in the Walden Library to locate a peer-reviewed article that (1) focuses on implementing a new informatics project or procedure and (2) discusses how a theory was used to guide this implementation.
  • Consider alternative theories that might also be applicable to that specific implementation.


Post by tomorrow Tuesday 06/14/2016 550 words in APA format with a minimum of 4 references


1)  The APA citation for your article and a brief summary that includes the setting of the implementation, what was being implemented, the need for the implementation, and the titles of the staff who spearheaded the project (if provided).


2)  Identify the theory that drove the implementation, and explain how this theory was translated into practice by the planning team.


3) Finally, suggest alternative theories that could have been used and support your response with references to the research literature.




Required Resources




  • Adams, R., Tranfield, D., & Denyer, D. (2011). How can toast be radical? Perceptions of innovations in healthcare. International Journal of Clinical Leadership, 17(1), 37–48.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.  

    This article examines four case studies that present successful innovations in the NHS. The authors propose a descriptive framework of innovation attributes to convey the perceptions of health care innovators.

  • Doran, D. M., Haynes, R. B., Kushniruk, A., Straus, S., Grimshaw, J., Hall, L. M., & … Jedras, D. (2010). Supporting evidence-based practice for nurses through information technologies. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 7(1), 4–15.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.   

    The authors of this article discuss the practicality and usability of mobile technologies. In addition, they detail how mobile technologies can help to provide evidence-based practice and ultimately benefit the work of nurse informaticists.

  • Rahimi, B., Timpka, T., Vimarlund, V., Uppugunduri, S., & Svensson, M. (2009). Organization-wide adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: A study based on diffusion of innovations theory. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 9(1),52.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.  

    The effectiveness of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system implementation is examined in this article. The attitudes, reactions, and thoughts of nurses and physicians involved in the implementation are also discussed.

  • @Current. (2012). Jean Watson’s philosophy of nursing. Retrieved from

    Access this website to explore one prominent philosophy of nursing, Watson’s philosophy of caring.

  • Connelly, M. (n.d.) Kurt Lewin change management model. Retrieved from

    Kurt Lewin’s change theory consists of a three stages: unfreeze, change, and freeze. Access this website to learn more about each phase.   

  • Lewin, K. (2011). Change theory. Retrieved from

    This website provides a brief overview of the concepts and stages of Lewin’s change theory.


  • Lee, T. (2006). Adopting a personal digital assistant system: application of Lewin’s change theory. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 55(4), 487-496






  • Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012i). Theories and conceptual frameworks. Baltimore: Author. 

    Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

    In this week’s media presentation, Gail Latimer, Dr. Patricia Button, and Dr. Roy Simpson discuss the importance of using theories and frameworks to guide informatics initiatives. In addition, Dr. Simpson provides an overview of two frameworks he commonly uses in his position, Moore’s Law and the Integrated Research Operational (IRO) model, as well as two well-known theories, Roger’s diffusion of innovation and Watson’s theory of caring.






Adopting a personal digital assistant system: application of Lewin’s

change theory

Ting-Ting Lee PhD RN

Associate Professor of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan

Accepted for publication 9 December 2005


Ting-Ting Lee,

National Taipei College of Nursing,

No. 365, Min-Td Road,

Taipei 112,


E-mail: [email protected]

doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03935.x

L E E T . – T . ( 2 0 0 6 )L E E T . – T . ( 2 0 0 6 ) Journal of Advanced Nursing 55(4), 487–496

Adopting a personal digital assistant system: application of Lewin’s change theory

Aim. This paper reports a study exploring nurses’ perceptions of adopting an

information system using handheld computers (personal digital assistants) in their

daily practice.

Background. Handheld computers have recently been used in nursing information

systems for patient care, but few studies have explored their impact on users. By

understanding clinicians’ experiences of using this technology, strategies can be

implemented to smooth the change process in adopting their use, thus achieving

optimal patient outcomes.

Method. A descriptive, exploratory approach was used to study nurses’ perceptions

of using personal digital assistants as part of a hospital information system. A

purposive sample of 15 nurses participated in one-to-one, in-depth interviews from

February to March 2004. Nurses’ perceptions of the adoption process were analysed

using Lewin’s force field theory of change as a framework.

Findings. Nurses initially resisted using the personal digital assistant system

(unfreezing stage), then came around to using it (moving stage), and finally adopted

the system in their daily practice (re-freezing stage). However, an anticipatory stage

also occurred and this could serve as a feedback mechanism to improve the system

for current and future use.

Conclusion. Educational programmes should be provided and strategic planning

should be done in the early stage of implementing a policy to adopt new technology.

In addition, the adoption process and learning period could be shortened by

improving the system’s content design. During this transition stage, dual charting

should be used as a backup only for a limited time to avoid adding extra work to

nurses’ already heavy workload. Finally, the concept of confidentiality should be

reinforced and stressed early in the educational programme to protect patient data,