Course Project: Part 3—Translating Evidence Into Practice


In Part 3 of the Course Project, you consider how the evidence you gathered during Part 2 can be translated into nursing practice.


Now that you have located available research on your PICOT question, you will examine what the research indicates about nursing practices. Connecting research evidence and findings to actual decisions and tasks that nurses complete in their daily practice is essentially what evidence-based practice is all about. This final component of the Course Project asks you to translate the evidence and data from your literature review into authentic practices that can be adopted to improve health care outcomes. In addition, you will also consider possible methods and strategies for disseminating evidence-based practices to your colleagues and to the broader health care field.


To prepare:


  • Consider Parts 1 and 2 of your Course Project. How does the research address your PICOT question?

  • With your PICOT question in mind, identify at least one nursing practice that is supported by the evidence in two or more of the articles from your literature review. Consider what the evidence indicates about how this practice contributes to better outcomes.

  • Explore possible consequences of failing to adopt the evidence-based practice that you identified.

  • Consider how you would disseminate information about this evidence-based practice throughout your organization or practice setting. How would you communicate the importance of the practice?

    To complete:

    In a 3- to 4-page paper:

    1) Restate your PICOT question and its significance to nursing practice. My PICOT question is: does hand washing and appropriate staff dressing among the surgical ward nurses reduce cross infection during patient management?

    2) Summarize the findings from the articles you selected for your literature review. Describe at least one nursing practice that is supported by the evidence in the articles. Justify your response with specific references to at least 2 of the articles. Please refer to the articles below:



Aiken, A. M., Karuri, D. M., Wanyoro, A. K., & Macleod, J. (2012). Interventional studies for preventing surgical site infections in sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Surgery, 242-249. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2012.04.004


Al-Khawaldeh, O., Al-Hussami, M., & Darawad, M. (2015). Influence of Nursing Students Handwashing Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes on Their Handwashing Compliance. Scientific Research Publishing. Doi: 


Bukhari, S., Hussain, W., Banjar, A., Almaimani, W., Karima, T., & Fatani, M. (2011). Hand hygiene compliance rate among healthcare professionals. PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved 1 April 2016, from




3) Explain how the evidence-based practice that you identified contributes to better outcomes. In addition, identify potential negative outcomes that could result from failing to use the evidence-based practice.


4) Outline the strategy for disseminating the evidence-based practice that you identified throughout your practice setting. Explain how you would communicate the importance of the practice to your colleagues. Describe how you would move from disseminating the information to implementing the evidence-based practice within your organization. How would you address concerns and opposition to the change in practice?


This part of the Course Project should be combined with the other two components of the Course Project and turned in as your Portfolio Assignment for this course.


Note:  In addition, include a 1-page summary of your project










  • Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2012).  Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.).Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    • Chapter 12, “Sampling in Quantitative Research”

      This chapter introduces key concepts concerning sampling in quantitative research. This includes such concepts as a description of populations, different types of sampling and their uses, and how to determine a manageable, yet sufficient number to be included in a sample. The chapter also includes suggestions for implementing a sampling plan.

    • Chapter 13, “Data Collection in Quantitative Research”

      Once a sampling design is complete, the next step is to collect the data, and this is the focus of Chapter 13. The chapter describes how to develop a data collection plan, and provides information about the different types of instruments that can be used, such as structured observation and biophysiologic measures.

    • Chapter 21, “Sampling in Qualitative Research”

      The focus of this chapter is on the sampling process in qualitative research. The chapter describes the different types of sampling and when they are commonly used. Sampling techniques in the three main qualitative traditions (ethnography, phenomenological studies and grounded theory studies) are highlighted.

    • Chapter 22, “Data Collection in Qualitative Research”

      This chapter examines the process of data collection in qualitative research as well as key issues surrounding data collection. This includes such methods as self-reporting, surveys, interviews, and personal journal keeping. The chapter also highlights important considerations when utilizing unstructured observations to gather data and how to record field notes.

  • Keough, V. A., & Tanabe, P. (2011). Survey research: An effective design for conducting nursing research. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 1(4), 37–44.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    This text emphasizes the advantages of survey research. The authors describe the nuances of survey research projects, including their design, methods, analysis, and limitations.




  • Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012b). Data collection. Baltimore, MD: Author. 

    Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 4 minutes.

    Dr. Kristen Mauk discusses how she collected data for her DNP project in this video. She describes the details of her pre- and post-tests used to track nurses’ knowledge in a rehabilitation unit.



  • Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2012).  Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.).Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    • Review Chapter 2, Fig. 2.1

    • Chapter 27, “Systematic Reviews of Research Evidence: Meta-analysis, Metasynthesis, and Mixed Studies Review”

      This chapter focuses on the different types of systematic reviews. The chapter discusses the advantages of this type of analysis and the steps for conducting a meta-analysis or metasynthesis.

  • Dingle, P. (2011). Statin statistics: Lies and deception. Positive Health, 180, 1.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    In this article, the author outlines how misleading statistics are used to make false claims about the positive use of statin drugs in order to retain a market share of sales for pharmaceutical firms.

  • Katapodi, M. C., & Northouse, L. L. (2011). Comparative effectiveness research: Using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to synthesize empirical evidence. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice, 25(3), 191–209.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    The authors of this article assert that more comparative effectiveness research (CER) is necessary to accommodate the elevated demand for evidence-based health care practices. The article supplies a summary of methodological issues relevant to systematic reviews and meta-analyses used in the process of CER.

  • Stichler, J. F. (2010). Evaluating the evidence in evidence-based design. Journal of Nursing Administration, 40(9), 348–351.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    The quality of evidence used in EBP can vary considerably. This article highlights the necessity of critically appraising facility design research articles and using a hierarchical model to rate the strength of evidence.

  • Bernd, R., du Prel, J.-B., & Blettner, M. (2009). Study design in medical research: Part 2 of a series on the evaluation of scientific publications. Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 106(11), 184–189. Retrieved from

    This article provides guidance in evaluating the study design of scientific publications for reliability and credibility. The authors suggest that the most important elements to consider are the question to be answered, the study population, the unit of analysis, the type of study, the measuring technique, and the calculation of sample size.

  • Walden University. (n.d.a). Paper templates. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from (for review)

    This website provides you access to the School of Nursing Sample Paper, which will serve as a template for formatting your papers.




  • Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012g). Hierarchy of evidence pyramid. Baltimore, MD: Author.  (for review)

    This multimedia piece explains the hierarchy of evidence pyramid. The piece offers definitions and key information for each level of the pyramid.

  • Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012n). Weighing the evidence. Baltimore, MD: Author. 

    Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 6 minutes.

    In this video, Dr. Kristen Mauk provides insight about how she analyzed her data and interpreted meanings of what the data showed. She describes how she drew conclusions based on the results and how she explained unexpected findings that were contrary to her initial hypotheses.





Identifying a Researchable Problem



Course Name

April 3, 2016

Identifying a Researchable Problem

Hundreds of millions of patients worldwide are affected by healthcare associated infections every year. The infections lead to severe illnesses, long-term disabilities, prolonged hospital stays and added costs to patients, their families, and the healthcare system. Hand hygiene is the primary action to reduce the number of healthcare-acquired infections; a simple action maybe, but the compliance rates among the healthcare providers is the main problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary on the issue of handwashing non compliance amongst healthcare workers and its relation to nosocomial infections. This paper will also generate five questions and describe how they are analyse for feasibility, as well as a PICOT question and a description of its variable. Additionally, ten keywords will be developped to help conduct the literature search.

Problem Identification

A crucial factor in selecting a problem is its significance to nursing and evidence from the study should have potential to contribute meaningfully to nursing practice ( Polit & Beck, 2012). Nurses comprises of 55% of the healthcare workforce and number more than 3 million, as such represent the most critical group in hand higiene compliance as they spent the most time with the patients (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2012). Hand hygiene is a critical practice aimed at keeping the hands clean and free from pathogens or reduce the amounts before performing any medical procedure or touching a patient. Practicing hand hygiene is important in the prevention of cross infection in clinical settings. Healthcare workers need an easy to use, timely access to both skin protection and hand hygiene for good hand hygiene practice.

Studies show that most nosocomial infections are transmitted through the hands of healthcare practitioners. It is well-known that better hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers play a critical role in the prevention of transmission of infectious agents (Pittet, Allegranzi & Boyce, 2009). The practice of hand washing is one of the most effective ways of preventing the transmission of infectious diseases, but despite the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for hand hygiene, the compliance among health practitioners remains low (Pittet, A



Literature Review: Hand washing and Hospital-Associated Infections


Walden University

Course Name

April 3, 2016

Literature Review: Hand washing and Hospital-Associated Infections

Most Hospital associated infections are alleged to be transmitted via the hands of Healthcare providers mainly through direct contact when the medical practitioner’s hands transfer the pathogens between individuals or between an environmental reservoir and an individual (Al-Khawaldeh, Al-Hussami, & Darawad, 2015). The purpose of this study is to find out whether there is sufficient evidence to indicate whether there is need for further research on hand washing with regards to the infections that patients are susceptible to in the case of contaminated contact. The evidence from the various studies and nursing journals were carefully assessed to ensure that salient information regarding the research study area were present and were relevant to the study. The researcher took into consideration the ethical issues that are involved in research. The identities of the sample population were not released at any given time and they gave consent for the use of the information retrieved from them (Newcomb, 2010). Furthermore, most of the information used was from journal articles that allow for others to reference the works and findings of the research and, thus, the researcher could include the research material in the literature review (Fouka & Mantzorou, 2011).

Synthesis on the Current State of Knowledge

Despite the relative simplicity of hand hygiene procedure, the adherence rates to the standard recommendations remain unacceptably low; well below 50% (Bukhari et al., 2011). The reasons for non-compliance with hand washing are low staff to patient ratios, lack of appropriate hand washing equipment, insufficient knowledge about risks and procedures, allergies to some hand washing products, the casual attitude of healthcare practitioners (HCPs) and time factors (Pfoh, Dy, & Engineer, 2013). Patients are likely to suffer infections that arise from inconsistent hygiene practices especially those that are supposed to undergo an operation and have undergone a surgical operation.

The United Stated Department of Infectious Diseases estimated the incidence of hospital-acquired infections by 4.5% and with a 5% fatality in 2014 translating to a huge economic impacts (Al-Khawaldeh et al., 2015). One of the main contradictions is the fact that; despite the numerous hand washing guidelines that have been adopted by a majority of health facilities, the compliance by the health care providers remains l