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Week 3 – Alterations of Hematology and Cardiovascular Systems

Course Contents

NRS 410V Case Study # 1

Dec 11, 2016 23:59:59       Max Points: 50

Details:

In a short essay (500-750 words), answer the Question at the end of Case Study 1. Cite references to support your positions.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a grading rubric.

RUBRIC

Accurate identification of anemia classification and rationale

Explanation of patient diagnosis with rationale from case findings. Outside sources and/or medical and nursing references used to support conclusions.

Thesis Development and Purpose Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive; contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin.

NRS 410V Case Study 2

Dec 11, 2016 23:59:59       Max Points: 50

Details:

In a short essay (500-750 words), answer the Question at the end of Case Study 2. Cite references to support your positions.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines . An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a grading rubric.

RUBRIC

Describe your approach to care

Recommend a treatment plan

Describe a method for providing both the patient and family with education and your rationale

Provide a teaching plan, using words the patient and family will understand.

Thesis Development and Purpose Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive; contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin.

Reading

Textbook

Pathophysiology – Copstead, L. C., & Banasik, J. L. (2012) Pathophysiology (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier. ISBN: 9781455726509. (Available as eBook)

Review fundamental concepts from chapters 13, 15 and 17.

Read chapters 9, 14, and 18.

Attachments:

Lecture 3, Case Study 1 &2

2

NRS-410V Lecture 3

Alterations of Hematology and Cardiovascular Systems

Introduction

Blood is the river of life. Blood transports nutrients and oxygen to all the organs and tissues and also carries away tissue waste and debris. Chemical messengers, clotting factors, anticoagulant factors, cells that fight bacteria, and numerous other components are carried by the blood. To be effective, the blood must stay liquid, but not too liquid, and it must be pumped through the circulation system to all tissues. Alterations in the red blood cell, the clotting components, the blood vessels, and the ability of the heart affect the entire system.

The Erythrocyte

The erythrocyte, or red blood cell (RBC), is the most numerous component of the blood. The function of the RBC is to transport oxygen to the tissues and also carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs. A complete blood count (CBC) is essential in evaluating the status of the hematopoietic system. The RBC count that is decreased may indicate an anemia. A reticulocyte count, which is more or less than 1% of the RBC count, helps determine if the cause of the anemia is due to blood loss, increased RBC destruction, or the bone marrow not functioning. An increase in reticulocytes may be seen with some anemias as the body tries to compensate.

Anemia

Anemia is a broad term used to indicate that there is a decreased oxygen-carrying capability of the blood. The lack of RBCs may be the result of an abnormally low production of red blood cells due to marrow failure, actual loss of RBCs due to bleeding, decreased erythropoietin secretion by the kidneys, or nutritional deficiencies. The effect of the decreased oxygen is tissue hypoxia that causes an increase in heart rate and respiratory rate as a compensatory response. Other symptoms include pallor, headache, light-headedness, and night cramps in the muscles. The RBC indices of MCH, MCV, MHCH, and RDW help identify the cause of the anemia (Porth, 2007).

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia worldwide. A dietary deficiency of iron is often the cause, but chronic blood loss has also been implicated. The RBCs are microcytic and hypochromic. They may also exhibit an irregular shape (poikilocytosis). The signs and symptoms with this anemia will include pallor, fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea, tachycardia, and sores in the corners of the mouth. The treatment for this condition is supplemental iron.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is linked to a decreased secretion of intrinsic factor by the parietal cells of the stomach, or the inability of vitamin B12 to be absorbed from the ileum. Vitamin B12 is vital to the synthesis of DNA in rapidly proliferating cells such as the red blood cells. Without the appropriate amount of vitamin B12, the red blood cells become hyperchrom