Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others.  

1601Rev Bras Enferm. 2019;72(6):1601-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0731

ABSTRACT
Objective: to evaluate the contributions of an educational program for capillary blood
glucose self-monitoring. Method: a quasi-experimental study performed in an outpatient
unit of a tertiary health care service in a sample of 25 people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,
from July 2016 to December 2017, developed through interactive tools for care with
capillary blood glucose self-monitoring. Results: among the items of capillary blood
glucose self-monitoring that showed improvement after participation in the educational
program, the most noteworthy are the “postprandial blood glucose values” (p=0.0039),
“Interpretation of capillary blood glucose results with meals and medications” (p=0.0156),
“recognition of the ‘weakness’ symptom for hyperglycemia” (p=0.0386) and “administration
of medications correctly” for hyperglycemia prevention (p=0.0063). Conclusion: the study
made it possible to recognize the main characteristics of blood glucose self-monitoring that
may contribute to the care for the person with diabetes.
Descriptors: Diabetes Mellitus; Health Education; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Self-
Care; Nursing Care.

RESUMO
Objetivo: avaliar as contribuições de um programa educativo para a automonitorização da
glicemia capilar. Método: estudo quase-experimental, realizado em unidade ambulatorial de
um serviço de atenção terciária à saúde, em amostra de 25 pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus tipo
2, no período de julho de 2016 a dezembro de 2017, desenvolvido por meio de ferramentas
interativas para o cuidado com a automonitorização da glicemia capilar. Resultados: entre os
itens da automonitorização da glicemia capilar que apresentaram melhora após a participação
no programa educativo, destacam-se os “valores da glicemia pós-prandial” (p=0,0039),
“interpretação dos resultados de glicemia capilar com as refeições e medicamentos” (p=0,0156),
“reconhecimento do sintoma ‘fraqueza’ para a hiperglicemia” (p=0,0386) e “administração de
medicamentos corretamente” para prevenção da hiperglicemia (p=0,0063). Conclusão: o
estudo possibilitou reconhecer as principais características da automonitorização da glicemia
que poderão contribuir para o cuidado à pessoa portadora da doença.
Descritores: Diabetes Mellitus; Educação em Saúde; Automonitorização da Glicemia;
Autocuidado; Cuidados de Enfermagem.

RESUMEN
Objetivo: evaluar las contribuciones de un programa educativo para la automonitorización de
la glucemia capilar. Método: el estudio cuasi-experimental, realizado en unidad ambulatoria
de un servicio de atención terciaria a la salud, en muestra de 25 personas con Diabetes
Mellitus tipo 2, en el período de julio de 2016 a diciembre de 2017, desarrollado por medio de
herramientas interactivas para el cuidado con la automonitorización de la glucemia capilar.
Resultados: entre lo

182CANADIAN GERIATRICS JOURNAL, VOLUME 22, ISSUE 4, DECEMBER 2019

Abstract

Background

Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that enables
individuals to describe, in advance, the kind of health care
they would want in the future, and has been shown to reduce
hospital-based interventions at the end of life. Our goal was
to describe the current state of ACP in a home-based primary
care program for frail homebound older people in Vancouver,
Canada. We did this by identifying four key elements that
should be essential to ACP in this program: frailty stage,
documentation of substitute decision-makers, and decision-
making with regard to both resuscitation (i.e., do not resus-
citate (DNR)) and hospitalization (i.e., do not hospitalize
(DNH)). While these elements are an important part of the
ACP process, they are often excluded from common practice.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional, observational study of data
abstracted from 200 randomly selected patient electronic
medical records between July 1 and September 30, 2017. We
describe the association between demographic characteristics,
comorbidities, and four key elements of ACP documentation
and decision-making as documented in the clinical record
using bivariate comparison, a logistic regression model and
multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results

In 73% (n=146) of the patient records, there was no explicit
documentation of frailty stage. Sixty-four per cent had docu-
mentation of a substitute decision-maker. Of those who had
their preferences documented, 90.6% (n=144/159) indicated
a preference for DNR, and 23.6% (n=29/123) indicated a

preference for DNH. In multiple regression modeling, a
diagnosis of dementia and older age were associated with
documentation of a DNR preference, adjusted odds ratio
(AOR) = 4.79 (95% CI 1.37, 16.71) and AOR = 1.14 (95%
CI 1.05, 1.24), respectively. Older age, male sex, and English
identified as the main language spoken were associated with
a DNH preference. AOR = 1.17 (95% CI 1.06, 1.28), AOR
= 4.19 (95% CI 1.41, 12.42), and AOR = 3.42 (95% CI 1.14,
10.20), respectively.

Conclusions

Clinician documentation of some elements of ACP, such as
identification of a substitute decision-maker and resuscitation
status, have been widely adopted, while other elements that
should be considered essential components of ACP, such as
frailty staging and preferences around hospitalization, are
infrequent and provide an opportunity for practice improve-
ment initiatives. The significant association between language
and ACP decisions suggests an important role for supporting
cross-cultural fluency in the ACP process.

Key words: advance care planning, substitute decision-maker,
frailty staging, do not resuscitate, do not hospitalize, home-
based primary care

Introduction

Frailty is a “multi

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Preventive Medicine

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ypmed

Review Article

Skin cancer interventions across the cancer control continuum: A review of
experimental evidence (1/1/2000–6/30/2015) and future research
directions

Alan C. Gellera,⁎, Barbra A. Dickermana, Jennifer M. Taberb, Laura A. Dwyerb, Anne M. Hartmanb,
Frank M. Pernab

a Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, United States
b National Cancer Institute, United States

A R T I C L E I N F O

Keywords:
Skin cancer
Intervention
Cancer control intervention
Behavior
Detection
Prevention
Review
Dissemination

A B S T R A C T

While the general efficacy of skin cancer interventions have been reviewed, employing the cancer control
continuum would be useful to identify research gaps at specific cancer control points. We characterized the
intervention evidence base for specific behavioral targets (e.g., tanning, sun protection, screening) and clinically
related targets (e.g., sunburn, skin exams, cancers) at each point in the cancer control continuum. The review
included articles published from 1/1/2000–6/30/15 that had an experimental design and targeted behavioral
intervention in skin cancer (e.g., specific behaviors or clinically related targets). The search yielded 86 articles,
including seven dissemination studies. Of the 79 non-dissemination studies, 57 exclusively targeted primary
prevention behaviors, five exclusively targeted screening, 10 targeted both detection and prevention, and eight
addressed cancer survivorship. Among prevention studies (n=67), 29 (43%) targeted children and 38 (57%)
targeted adults. Of the 15 screening studies, nine targeted high-risk groups (e.g., men aged ≥50 years) and six
targeted the general population. Although research has focused on skin cancer prevention, empirically validated
interventions are still needed for youth engaged in indoor tanning and for behavioral interventions to pursue
change in clinically relevant targets. Research must also address detection among those at highest risk for skin
cancer, amelioration of emotional distress attendant to diagnosis and treatment, and survivorship concerns. We
discuss essential qualities and opportunities for intervention development and translational research to inform
the field.

1. Introduction

The incidence of the most commonly fatal form of skin cancer, cu-
taneous melanoma, is increasing faster than any other preventable
cancer (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program,
2015). An estimated 76,000 Americans will be diagnosed with mela-
noma in 2015 (American Cancer Society). Adults of all ages are at risk.
For men and women ages 20–29, melanoma is one of the most common
cancers. Rates have risen precipitously among middle-aged and older
men and women. The mortality rate of melanoma has recently stabi-