The DNP Project: Literature Synthesis

 For this discussion post, you will practice writing your: 1) Literature Search Methodology, and 2) Provide an example of one full paragraph synthesizing 2-3 of your Level I, II, or III studies that support your evidence-based intervention. Attached is a document called “Analysis to Synthesis”, providing examples of how to synthesize results or outcomes for multiple scientific studies. 

Provide your instructor and student colleagues with an update on your implementation plans for your DNP Project. Share any successes, challenges, or barriers you experienced this week.

 Use the Johns Hopkins Individual Evidence Summary Tool and the Johns Hopkins Research Evidence Appraisal Tool to find the level of  your articles.

Your post will be checked in Turnitin for plagiarism. Responses should be a minimum of 350 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced.  A minimum of 3 references are required (other than your text). 

Created by Cosette Taylor, Communications Instructor for the Faculty of Nursing at the University of

Manitoba, [email protected]

Can you give me

examples of the process

of analysis to synthesis

of the literature?

When your kitchen table is
covered in a mountain of
research literature and you do
not know what to do next, an
example of the process of
analysis to synthesis can be
helpful in getting you started. I
have provided these examples below.

The thinking at this stage consumes a lot of energy and time (more hands would not necessarily
be helpful, trust me). How you interpret the significance of the literature is what’s most
important. You will do more than simply reporting the findings (facts); you will make statements
about what is “known” or “not known” (the gaps) on the topic and identify the controversies
among the academics who research the topic.

While reading through your sources, you first need to determine the:

• general trends or themes in the literature

• similar findings in some of the different studies

• contrasting findings among the different studies.

Below, the original sources are provided and the successful synthesis of these findings. Read
through these examples carefully. Next go to the sample literature reviews found on this site.

Reporting General Trends in the LiteratureReporting General Trends in the LiteratureReporting General Trends in the LiteratureReporting General Trends in the Literature

Original sourcesOriginal sourcesOriginal sourcesOriginal sources to analyzeto analyzeto analyzeto analyze

In Davis, Hershberger, Ghan, and Lin (1990), you found that:

“In this study about the personal qualities for a good nurse, caring was reported 84% of the time in good

nurses and kindness was reported 80% of the time”.

In Resnick (2002), the patient shared that she:

“… was fortunate to have a positive experience with my nurse. The nurse was thoughtful and empathetic.

Created by Cosette Taylor, Communications Instructor for the Faculty of Nursing at the University of

Manitoba, [email protected]

The nurse comforted me, listened to my fears, shared the experiences of other women in this situation with

me, and gave me information when I needed it. This nurse touched my heart and made the illness easier”

In their study, Rush and Cook (2006) reported that:

“Five hundred and twenty five comments were recorded on the main requirements of

Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice

Appendix E
Research Evidence Appraisal Tool

©2017 The Johns Hopkins Hospital/ Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing

Evidence level and quality rating:

Article title: Number:

Author(s): Publication date:


Setting: Sample (composition and size):

Does this evidence address my EBP question?


No-Do not proceed with appraisal of this evidence

Is this study:

QuaNtitative (collection, analysis, and reporting of numerical data)

Measurable data (how many; how much; or how often) used to formulate facts, uncover patterns in

research, and generalize results from a larger sample population; provides observed effects of a

program, problem, or condition, measured precisely, rather than through researcher interpretation of

data. Common methods are surveys, face-to-face structured interviews, observations, and reviews of

records or documents. Statistical tests are used in data analysis.

Go to Section I: QuaNtitative

QuaLitative (collection, analysis, and reporting of narrative data)

Rich narrative documents are used for uncovering themes; describes a problem or condition from the

point of view of those experiencing it. Common methods are focus groups, individual interviews

(unstructured or semi structured), and participation/observations. Sample sizes are small and are

determined when data saturation is achieved. Data saturation is reached when the researcher identifies

that no new themes emerge and redundancy is occurring. Synthesis is used in data analysis. Often a

starting point for studies when little research exists; may use results to design empirical studies. The

researcher describes, analyzes, and interprets reports, descriptions, and observations from participants.

Go to Section II: QuaLitative

Mixed methods (results reported both numerically and narratively)

Both quaNtitative and quaLitative methods are used in the study design. Using both approaches, in

combination, provides a better understanding of research problems than using either approach alone.

Sample sizes vary based on methods used. Data collection involves collecting and analyzing both

quaNtitative and quaLitative data in a single study or series of studies. Interpretation is continual and

can influence stages in the research process.

Go to Section III: Mixed Methods

Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice

Appendix E
Research Evidence Appraisal Tool

©2017 The Johns Hopkins Hospital/ Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing

Section I: QuaNtitative

Level of Evidence (Study

Practice Question:


Article Number

Author and Date

Evidence Type

Sample, Sample Size, Setting

Findings That Help Answer the EBP Question

Observable Measures


Evidence Level, Quality

· N/A

· N/A

· N/A

· N/A

· N/A

· N/A

· N/A

Attach a reference list with full citations of articles reviewed for this Practice question.

Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice

Appendix G: Individual Evidence Summary Tool

The Johns Hopkins Hospital/ The Johns Hopkins University


Directions for Use of the Individual Evidence Summary Tool


This form is used to document the results of evidence appraisal in preparation for evidence synthesis. The form provides the EBP team with documentation of the sources of evidence used, the year the evidence was published or otherwise communicated, the information gathered from each evidence source that helps the team answer the EBP question, and the level and quality of each source of evidence.

Article Number

Assign a number to each reviewed source of evidence. This organizes the individual evidence summary and provides an easy way to reference articles.

Author and Date


PICOT QUESTION: In overweight adult patients in a primary care clinic, what is the impact of implementing the American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle recommendations, compared to standard care, on body weight in 8-10 weeks?

Implementation: Project participants will follow the American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle recommendations guidelines, that focus on knowing how many calories you should be eating and drinking to maintain your weight and aiming for at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous physical exercise (or an equivalent combination of both) each week. As a formative evaluation, the DNP student will call participants weekly to reinforce them to follow the diet and lifestyle recommendations, audit smartphone app and tracker usage, and answer any questions. The DNP student will meet with staff weekly to discuss questions and concerns with calorie and activity tracking and offer support for the program. The DNP student will collect participants’ compliance data with app and tracker usage during each phone call.

The program is feasible and can be implemented within the projected time. There is a lot of confidence that the program is achievable and that the results will impact practice. Potential barriers include participants forgetting to input their data to the tracking app and a lack of reliable mobile access. These can be mitigated with training and support and weekly reminders to participants. If a potential participant does not have access to a smartphone, one will be provided for them by the clinic for use during the project. The DNP student will also provide participants with the free Fitbit smartphone app to track weekly food intake and activity. A consumer-based wearable activity tracker might be an ideal tool for health professionals to provide continuous monitoring and aid to patients, as well as another way to encourage people to be more active (Brickwood et al., 2019).

I attached some references that may serve for the synthesis, as they support this project.


Brickwood, K. J., Watson, G., O’Brien, J., & Williams, A. D. (2019). Consumer-Based Wearable Activity Trackers Increase Physical Activity Participation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 7(4), e11819., G. A., & Ryan, D. H. (2021). Evidence-based weight-loss interventions: Individualized treatment options to maximize patient outcomes. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism23 Suppl 1, 50–62.

Følling, I. S., Oldervoll, L. M., Hilmarsen, C., & Ersfjord, E. (2021). A qualitative study explores the use of activity monitors for patients with obesity during weight-loss treatment. BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation13(1),