Purpose: Differentiate between primary, secondary, and “other” journal articles; differentiate between qualitative and quantitative research articles. 



  • Download the Study Identification Worksheet attached below.
  • Using the knowledge gained during your preparation and the flowchart at the bottom of the Worksheet, you will review the pdfs of the 10 studies linked below.
  • Identify each study as follows by highlighting your choice on the document:
    • Is it a primary study, a secondary study, or “other” (neither)?
    • If a primary study, is it quantitative or qualitative? (If it is not a primary study, leave the last two columns blank.)
  • Submit your completed worksheet to this submission folder.

ESTIMA, Braz. J. Enterostomal Ther., São Paulo, v18, eXX20, 2020 1

Nursing interventions to reduce surgical
site infection in potentially contaminated
surgeries: an integrative review
Intervenções de enfermagem para reduzir infecção do sítio cirúrgico em cirurgias
potencialmente contaminadas: revisão integrativa

Intervenciones de enfermería para reducir infección del sitio quirúrgico en cirugía
potencialmente contaminadas: revisión integrativa

Tatiana Martins1,*, Lúcia Nazareth Amante2, Camila Vicente3, Gabrielle Maciel de Sousa4,
Emanuele Pozzebon Caurio4 , Maria Elena Echevarría Guanilo1, Juliana Balbinot Reis Girondi2


1. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem – Florianópolis (SC), Brazil.
2. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Gestão do Cuidado em Enfermagem – Modalidade

Profissional – Florianópolis (SC), Brazil.
3. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – Residência Multiprofissional Integrada em Saúde – Florianópolis (SC), Brazil.
4. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – Graduação em Enfermagem – Florianópolis (SC), Brazil.
*Correspondence author: tatiana_martin[email protected]
Received: Feb. 17, 2020 | Accepted: May 7, 2020

Objective: Identify nursing interventions that contribute to the reduction of surgical site infections in potentially contaminated
surgeries. Methods: Integrative review, carried out in four databases. There were 5,888 articles published in the period from January
2008 to July 2018, in English, Portuguese and Spanish, from which nine articles were selected after final analysis. Results: The nursing
interventions appeared according to the perioperative periods: preoperative (55.55%), intraoperative (33.33%), postoperative
(66.66%), being associated with: antibiotic therapy, trichotomy, alcoholic chlorhexidine bathing, hand hygiene, sterile glove/wear/
package change for fascia and skin closure, degermination, antisepsis, surgical classification, surgical time, care with dressings and
drains, temperature and blood glucose control, patient education, discharge and post-hospital discharge orientation. Conclusions:
Nursing interventions were identified in each perioperative period, proving to be essential for the qualification of nursing care and
effective in reducing surgical site infection in potentially contaminated surgeries.

DESCRIPTORS: Nursing. Perioperative nursing. Patient safety. Enterostomal therapy.



Martins T https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0954-5811

Amante LN https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5440-2094

Vicente C http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1918-0681

Sousa GM https://orcid.org/0000

International Journal of Caring Sciences May-August 2020 Volume 13 | Issue 2| Page 959


Original Article

Effects of Supportive Nursing Intervention on the Psychological Well-Being of
Mothers of Neonates Admitted to Tertiary Hospitals in Ogun State

Maitanmi Bukola Titilope, RN, RM, RPHN, RPHNE, BNSc, PGDE, MSc
Senior Nursing Officer, Senior Nursing Officer, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun
State, Nigeria

Maitanmi Julius Olatade, RN, RM, RPHN, RPHNE, BNSc, PGDE, MSc
Lecturer II Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo,
Ogun State, Nigeria

Ajao Ezekiel Olasunkanmi, RN, PhD, FWACN
Professor, Dean, Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing, Babcock University,
Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State.

Olubiyi Simeon Kayode, RN, PhD, FWACN
Senior Lecturer Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences,
University Of Ilorin, Nigeria

Leslie Tabitha Amere, RN, RM, RPHN, BNSc., PGDE, MSc
Lecturer II, Department of Community Health Nursing , School of Nursing, Babcock University,
Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Corespondence: Maitanmi Julius Olatade, RN, RM, RPHN, RPHNE, BNSc., PGDE, MSc
Lecturer II Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun
State, Nigeria e-mail: [email protected]


Women are often faced with different kinds of difficulties while trying to cope with the roles of having to nurse a
neonate. It is worse when the neonate is separated from the mother owing to hospitalization in the neonatal intensive
care unit. Mothers experience psychological trauma ranging from anxiety to depression resulting from the situation
and the inability to cope with the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) environment. This study assessed the effect
of supportive nursing intervention on the psychological well-being of mothers of admitted neonates. The study
employed a quasi-experimental research design which involved one group pre and post-test design. There were 52
mothers recruited for the study using total enumeration method in the two study centres. Ryfff’s standardized scale
of psychological well-being was used in collecting data from the participants. This study concludes that supportive
nursing intervention has positive effect on the psychological well-being of mothers. Nurses can play major roles in
ensuring that the mothers whose neonates are admitted are psychologically stable throughout the period of

Keywords: Mothers, Neonate, Psychological well-being, Supportive nursing intervention.

Integrative Literature Review

The Role of the School Nurse in Suicide
Interventions: An Integrative Review

Mitzi C. Pestaner, MSN, RN, JD1 , Deborah E. Tyndall, PhD, RN1 ,
and Shannon B. Powell, PhD, RN, CNE1


Suicide rates among children and adolescents have continued to rise over the past decade indicating the need for school-based
suicide prevention programs. School nurses (SNs) are well positioned to assist in assessment, early identification, and
intervention of at-risk students. This integrative review aimed to (1) critically examine the role of the SN in school-based
suicide interventions, (2) explore potential barriers preventing the SN from participating in suicide interventions, and (3)
recommend strategies to build capacity for principles of school nursing practice in suicide intervention. The National
Association of School Nurses’ Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice was used to categorize interventions and
outcomes related to suicide prevention. Findings demonstrate a lack of reported nursing interventions directly linked to
student outcomes and suggest obscurity in the role of the SN. Recommendations for future research and strategies to build
capacity for principles of school nursing practice are provided.


mental health, integrative reviews, school nurse role, safety/injury prevention


Suicide among adolescents has continued to rise over the

past decade. In 2011, for ages 15–24, suicide rose from the

third to the second leading cause of death (Centers for Dis-

ease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019). As suicide rates

continue to rise among older high school adolescents, a sim-

ilar negative trend is being noted in the younger adolescent

population. For children of ages 10–14, suicide rose from

being the fourth leading cause of death to third in 2008 and

became the second leading cause of death in 2014 (CDC,


Contributing to these rates is the finding that only 20% of
adolescents in the United States receive services for mental

health (MH) and substance use needs (U.S. Department of

Health and Human Services, 2017). Research demonstrates

that there is a significant increase in suicide and suicide risk

behaviors, such as suicide ideation and attempts, during

adolescence (Hooven, Walsh, Pike, & Herting, 2012). In

2017, the CDC conducted the Youth Risk Behavior Survey

and found that 17.2% of high school students had seriously
considered suicide, 13.6% had made a plan, and 7.4% had
made one or more suicide attempts (Kann et al., 2018).

Factors contributing to suicidality in children and adoles-

cent populations are complex. In a recent systematic review

of 44 studies, psychological factors (e.g., depression, drug


International Journal of

Environmental Research

and Public Health


Living with Restrictions. The Perspective of Nursing
Students with Primary Dysmenorrhea

Elia Fernández-Martínez 1 , Ana Abreu-Sánchez 1 , Juan Francisco Velarde-García 2,* ,
María Teresa Iglesias-López 3 , Jorge Pérez-Corrales 4 and Domingo Palacios-Ceña 4

1 Department of Nursing, University of Huelva, Avenida Tres de Marzo s/n, 21071 Huelva, Spain;
el[email protected] (E.F.-M.); [email protected] (A.A.-S.)

2 Department of Nursing, Red Cross College, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM),
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avenida Reina Victoria 28, 28003 Madrid, Spain

3 Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Crta. Pozuelo—Majadahonda km 1800,
28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Spain; [email protected]

4 Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Research
Group of Humanities and Qualitative Research in Health Science of Universidad Rey Juan
Carlos (Hum & QRinHS), Avenida Atenas s/n, 28922 Alcorcón, Spain; jo[email protected] (J.P.-C.);
[email protected] (D.P.-C.)

* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +34-91-534-3649

Received: 7 October 2020; Accepted: 13 November 2020; Published: 17 November 2020

Abstract: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) affects a large number of female university students, diminishing
their quality of life and hindering academic performance, representing a significant cause of absenteeism.
The purpose of our study was to determine how nursing students experienced restrictions as a result of
primary dysmenorrhea. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted among 33 nursing students
with primary dysmenorrhea. A purposeful sampling strategy was applied. Data were collected from
five focus groups (two sessions each) and the field notes of 10 researchers. A video meeting platform was
used to conduct the focus groups. A thematic inductive analysis was performed. Thirty-three female
nursing students participated in the study with a mean age of 22.72 (SD 3.46) years. Three broad themes
emerged: (a) restriction


Telephonic nursing intervention for
laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hernia
repair: A randomized controlled study
Renata da Silva Schulz1, Rosimere Ferreira Santana2,3* , Carla Targino Bruno dos Santos4, Thiago Batista Faleiro5,
Dayana Medeiros do Amaral Passarelles6, Ana Beatriz Serra Hercules6 and Thalita Gomes do Carmo2


Background: Patient undergoing surgery may be afraid and concerned about the diagnosis, the treatment, the
procedure, the postoperative care, and the surgical recovery. Good communication between staff and patients can
minimize or prevent this situation. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Telecare nursing intervention,
“Telephone consultation”, in reducing the “Delayed surgical recovery” nursing diagnosis in patients undergoing
laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hernia repair.

Methods: This study was performed in two different institutions located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 43
patients were enrolled. The experimental group consisted of 22 patients who had access to the telephone follow-
up intervention, and the control group consisted of 21 patients who received conventional treatment without
telephone follow-up. This was a randomized controlled study with patients who were 60 years or older and
awaiting operative procedures of hernia repair and laparoscopic cholecystectomy who had a mobile or landline
phone and were available for telephone contact.

Results: There was a reduction in “loss of appetite with nausea” (p = 0.013); “need help to complete self-care” (p =
0.041); “pain” (p = 0.041); and “postoperative sensation” (p = 0.023). The experimental group showed a significantly
larger decrease in factors related to the “Delayed surgical recovery” diagnosis, suggesting a positive effect of the
intervention compared to the effect in control group..

Conclusion: Telephone consultation identified factors that increased the risk of complications after surgery,
recognized potential patients for delayed surgical recovery and helped perioperative nurses provide accurate
interventions to prevent or mitigate delayed recovery.
This study was registered in the platform Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC) – link: http://www.
ensaiosclinicos.gov.br under registration number RBR-4C249M, retrospectively registered on April 13, 2020.

Keywords: Home telecare, Telegeriatrics, Telenursing, Teleconsulting, Telesurgery, Geriatric nursing

© The Author(s). 2020 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License,
which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give
appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if
changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article ar


36 1447-4328/© 2021 Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation. All rights reserved.https://doi.org/10.37464/2020.381.167

Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing 38(1) • 2020.381.167

Objective: The aim was to explore and compare
documentation of the nursing process for patient
safety in two nursing documentation systems: paper
and digital records.

Background: The ‘nursing process’ (assessment,
planning, intervention, and evaluation) is
recommended by professional nursing registration
and health service accreditation bodies as a key
component of understanding nurses’ clinical reasoning.
Nurses’ responsibility for patient safety must be
supported by comprehensive documentation practices.

Study design and methods: A retrospective audit
of twenty clinical care records (N = 20) randomly
selected from a single acute medical ward at a
tertiary hospital in Australia; ten from a digital trial
that replicated selected paper forms and ten paper
records as controls. The audit was conducted by
two nurse researchers using a purpose built data
extraction tool.

Results: Patient age, gender and primary diagnoses
were similar for the digital and paper care records.
Documentation of the full nursing process was low in
both record types, and comprehensiveness of nursing
documentation was similar across the paper and
digital records. Compared to the paper documents,
the digital documents were more often rated as
‘complete’ (p<0.05). Documentation of risk to skin

integrity (p<0.05) and evidence of completed nursing
interventions to address risks were more frequent
(p<0.05) in digital records.

Discussion: The findings of this study highlight an
important gap in comprehensive documentation
of the nursing process that supports and informs
the clinical reasoning of nurses for patient safety.
Improvements in digital documents reflect future
opportunity to enhance the quality of nurse
documentation using technology specific strategies
such as prompts, visualisation and nudge.

Conclusion: This research identifies that both paper
and digital systems of hospital documentation
may fail to capture and communicate the clinical
reasoning of nurses. Digital systems have the
potential to improve capture of the clinical reasoning
and nursing process.

What is already known about the topic?
• Professional registration and healthcare

accreditation bodies recommend nurses’ clinical
decision making is underpinned by processes of
assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation.

• Poor capture of nurses’ clinical decision making in
their documentation has negative consequences
for the continuity, quality and safety of care;
including inadequate detection of deterioration and
escalation of care.



International Journal of

Environmental Research

and Public Health


Investigating Nurses’ Views on Care of Mentally Ill
Patients with Skin Injuries

Evridiki Kaba *, Aikaterini Triantafyllou, Georgia Fasoi, Martha Kelesi and Areti Stavropoulou

Department of Nursing, School of Health and Care Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Athens, Greece;
[email protected] (A.T.); [email protected] (G.F.); [email protected] (M.K.);
[email protected] (A.S.)
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +30-694-468-2583

Received: 26 September 2020; Accepted: 17 October 2020; Published: 19 October 2020

Abstract: Background: Individuals with mental illness are at increased risk of skin injuries. The role of
nurses in skin injury prevention and management is crucial and therefore their views on wound care
may provide useful information for improving the quality of the care provided. Aim: To investigate
nurses’ views on care of mentally ill patients with skin injuries. Method: A qualitative research design
based on the principles of grounded theory approach was followed. Unstructured interviews
were conducted with seven nurses working in psychiatric wards with frequent skin injuries.
Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method of analysis. Results: Two main themes
were emerged from data analysis. The first main theme, namely factors affecting the care of patients
with skin injuries, included seven categories: (a) shortage of hospital supplies, equipment and
services (b) staff shortages, (c) lack of knowledge, (d) nurses’ resistance to change, (e) difficulty in
collaborating with patients, (f) patients’ physical conditions and (g) nurses’ attitudes as an obstacle
to care. The second main theme, namely nurses’ suggestions for optimizing care, included five
categories: (a) need for additional staff, (b) need for increasing hospital supplies and equipment
availability, (c) need for training (d) need of changing nurses’ attitudes towards care and (e) need of
changing the patients’ approach to collaboration. Conclusion: The care of mentally ill patients with
skin injuries is affected by multidimensional factors that have a direct impact on the quality of nurses’
work and patients’ hospitalization. Specific efforts are needed to overcome the obstacles tha


Nurse suicide prevention
starts with crisis intervention
Make a plan to protect yourself and your colleagues.
By Judy E. Davidson, DNR RN; Amanda Choflet, DNP, RN; M. Melissa Earley, BSN, RN; Paul Clark, PhD, RN;
Sattaria Dilks, DNE RN; Linda Morrow, DNE MBA; Sharon Tucker, PhD, RN; and Trisha Mims, MSN, RN

leagues that it’s okay not to be okay.
Not every suicide can be prevented, but ac-

cepting the fact that suicide happens is a nec-
essary precursor to prevention. In this article,

in the first article in this series on nurse mental
~ vve’ll build on the resiliency strategies covered

healili (niyamericatinurse.com/?p=70264). The
goal is to empower you with concrete steps that
will help you protect yourself and identify col-

~ leagues in crisis and to provide evidence-based
actions you can take to ensure they get the as-

” sistance they need , (See Resources for belp.)

Be aware, identify, and recognize
Most people who are having suicid:11 thoughts
are in too much distress to get help on their
own. Their view of the world becomes my-
opic and focused on the negative, They need
a friend or colleague to encourage them to use
resources to seek help or to even make the call
for them. Nurses aren’t immune to the effects
of depression, and we’re socialized to ”buck up

nize overwhelming feelings of sadness or de-
and take it,” making it difficult for us to recog-

pression in ourselves, Or that we’ve reaclied
the point where we can’t function. However,

WE KNOW that suicide rates are higher in nurses we can help each other if we know what to do
than the general population. but we don’t yet and how to take action to save a life.
know the exact reasons why. However, the na- Use the acronym AIR (Awareness, Identify,
ture of the work we do increases our risk of Recognize) to help you identify colleagues
anxiety, stress disorders, and depression. The who are at risk.
COVID-19 pandenlic makes us even more vul-
nerable (as has been documented during previ- Awareness
ous disease outbreaks, such as Ebola virus dis- Be aware of the warning signs frequently seen
ease ). ( See Nitme suicide riskfactors.) in someone in crisis . Listen for them during

We haven’t yer overcoine the stigma associ- conversations with colleagues ancl watch for
ated with seeking niental health treatment , but behavior changes . (See Crisis warning signs.)
given the increased incidence of suicide among Because someone can have suicidal
nurses. we need to change our perspective and thoughts and not display any noticeable signs,
normalize conversations about mental health regularly check in with colleagues, giving them
and wellness. We ni,ist create :itmospheres of space to discuss their feelings. Open the door
acceptance and empathy withjn healthcare or- by asking, “I’ve noticed you’re more down
ganizations :ind send the message to our col- t

International Journal of

Environmental Research

and Public Health


Are You Prepared to Save a Life? Nursing Students’ Experience
in Advanced Life Support Practice

Lorena Gutiérrez-Puertas 1 , Verónica V. Márquez-Hernández 1,2,* , Vanesa Gutiérrez-Puertas 1,
Mª Carmen Rodríguez-García 1,2 , Alba García-Viola 1 and Gabriel Aguilera-Manrique 1,2


Citation: Gutiérrez-Puertas, L.;

Márquez-Hernández, V.V.;

Gutiérrez-Puertas, V.; Rodríguez-García,

M.C.; García-Viola, A.;

Aguilera-Manrique, G. Are You

Prepared to Save a Life? Nursing

Students’ Experience in Advanced

Life Support Practice. Int. J. Environ.

Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1273.


Academic Editor: Paula Parás-Bravo

Received: 21 December 2020

Accepted: 28 January 2021

Published: 31 January 2021

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral

with regard to jurisdictional claims in

published maps and institutional affil-


Copyright: © 2021 by the authors.

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article

distributed under the terms and

conditions of the Creative Commons

Attribution (CC BY) license (https://



1 Department of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Almeria
Sacramento S/N, en La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120 Almería, Spain; [email protected] (L.G.-P.);
[email protected] (V.G.-P.); [email protected] (M.C.R.-G.); a[email protected] (A.G.-V.);
[email protected] (G.A.-M.)

2 Research Group of Health Sciences, CTS-451, 04120 Almería, Spain
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +34-950-214-590

Abstract: The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of nursing
students after applying advanced life support techniques on a hospitalised patient in cardiac arrest
in a simulated setting. A qualitative descriptive phenomenological study was conducted. Fifty-four
nursing students from the University of Almería (Spain) participate


Nurse-Led Intervention Helps
Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Covers all areas affecting patients’ health
January 27, 2021

The Care Coordination for Health Promotion and Activities in Parkinson’s Disease (CHAPS) intervention
provides patients with self-care tools and care coordination from nurse care managers.

The program’s management model uses the four domains of medical, mental, physical function, and
living environment.
Results of a randomized clinical trial showed better adherence to many indicators of care
CHAPS creates consistency in assessments and provides an individualized approach to patient care.

A care management intervention that focuses on coordinating care for people with Parkinson’s disease
helped patients self-manage medication, follow up with specialists, and identify problems and topics
important to patients.

The program included nurse care managers and self-care tools. It started with a task force of nurses,
physicians, educators, and members of the Parkinson’s disease community, says Karen Connor, RN,
PhD, MBA, health services researcher at the UCLA department of neurology.

The goal was to present stakeholders’ perceptions and study what affects patients. “They came to a
consensus on 38 quality goals to reach,” Connor says.

The program included nurse care managers who attended orientation on the Care Coordination for Health
Promotion and Activities in Parkinson’s Disease (CHAPS) intervention. Some care managers had
experience caring for patients with Parkinson’s disease, and others had extensive care management

“Some nurses were brand new to these sites and ideas, and took more time to feel confident,” Connor

CHAPS started with an organizing framework for topics to be addressed and managed, says Hilary
Siebens, MD, principal with Siebens Patient Care Communication in Seal Beach, CA.

“There were gaps in communication and gaps in whole patient care,” Siebens explains. “This contributed
to the fragmentation of care and care not being focused on the real issues that the patient and care
partners were facing.”

Different Perspectives
CHAPS helps clinicians and care managers look at patients from different perspectives, making it more
likely they will see the whole picture. “It covers all the areas that might be affecting the patient’s health,”


Siebens says.

CHAPS drew its organizing framework from the Siebens Domain Management Model. Siebens developed it
after years of working in internal medicine with a focus on geriatrics.

This model uses a framework of four domains in improving patient care:

Medical/surgical issues;
Mental status/emotions/coping;
Physical function;
Living environment.

Study Identification Worksheet

Study #

Is it a primary research report, a secondary research report, or neither/other?

If a primary research report, is it quantitative or qualitative?