Sampling

The temptation to form premature theories upon insufficient data is the bane of our profession.

—Sherlock Holmes (from The Valley of Fear, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle)

Sherlock Holmes, the great fictional logician, may have made this reprimand in reference to the science of criminal investigation, but the underlying principle holds true for all branches of research. Now that you have identified a research problem and developed hypotheses, the next step is to identify your sample and begin gathering data that will answer your research questions. The process of sampling to gather data is a crucial step in the research process in that you must be sure that the instruments and sample population mesh well with the study’s goals and objectives so that they will produce valid and reliable results.

For this Discussion, you identify a target population and sample appropriate for addressing the research problem you formulated in the Week 2 Discussion. (see attached file).

To prepare:

  • Review      this week’s media presentation and consider Dr. Pothoff’s comments on      sampling.
  • Recall      the research problem, question, and hypothesis you developed in Week 2’s      Discussion. With this in mind, ask yourself: What population is most      relevant, and accessible, for exploring my research problem?
  • Consider      how you could reach this target population to gather data. What are some      challenges you might encounter?
  • Determine      a data collection approach for your target population. Develop an informed      rationale for selecting that approach.

By tomorrow Wednesday 09/13/17, write a minimum of 550 words essay in APA format with a minimum of 3 references from the list in the instructions area. Include the level one headings as numbered below:

Post a cohesive response that addresses the following questions:

1) What are the researchable populations in your area of practice? Which would be most appropriate for use in your research study?

2) What are the challenges of obtaining a sample from this population? How could you address those challenges?

3) What approach would you use to collect data from the sample? Provide a rationale for the approach you choose based on this week’s Learning Resources.

Required Media

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2011). Research methods for evidence-based practice: Quantitative research: Sampling. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes.

In this week’s video, the presenter explores some key considerations in health care research for the sampling process.

Required Readings

Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.

Chapter 15, “Sampling”

Chapter 15 introduces key concepts and components of sampling theory and the sampling process. The chapter discusses several important sampling considerations, including target population, hypothetical population, accessible population, elements, subjects, participants, and generalizability of research findings based on sampling methods.

Chapter 20, “Collecting and Managing Data”

Chapter 20 explains how data collection is an integral part of research and presents methods for collecting and managing data.

Corrigan, P. W., Tsang, H. H., Shi, K., Lam, C. S., & Larson, J. (2010). Chinese and American employers’ perspectives regarding hiring people with behaviorally driven health conditions: The role of stigma. Social Science & Medicine, 71(12), 2162–2169. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.08.025

This article discusses a mixed-method study of the work opportunities for people with behaviorally driven health conditions such as HIV/AIDS and drug and alcohol abuse. The article describes the results of qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys of employers in China and the United States in an effort to analyze employer perspectives, stigma, and the possibility for stigma change.

Williams, H., Harris, R., & Turner-Strokes, L. (2009). Work sampling: A quantitative analysis of nursing activity in a neuro-rehabilitation setting. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(10), 2097–2107.

This article describes a quantitative research study on the amount of time nurses spend on direct patient care in a neuro-rehabilitation setting. The article offers suggestions for future studies that focus on work sampling and discusses how staffing requirement estimates should consider indirect care and non-patient activities in addition to direct patient care needs.

Optional Resources

Fawcett, J., & Garity, J. (2009). Evaluation of samples. In Evaluating research for evidence-based nursing (pp. 91–131). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis. Retrieved from http://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2010424062&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Walden University. (n.d.). Collecting quantitative data. Retrieved August 1, 2011, from http://streaming.waldenu.edu/hdp/researchtutorials/educ8106_player/educ8106_collecting_quantative_data.html

Running head: SHORT STAFFING OF NURSES 1

SHORT STAFFING OF NURSES 2

Short Staffing of Nurses

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Short Staffing of Nurses

Nurses play an intricate role in the medical field in that they are responsible for the continued assessment of a patient’s health status, and at the same time examining the patient’s response to the prescribed treatment. In addition, nurses also ensure that the patient’s needs that are, cognitive, physical, and emotional are fulfilled. In the United States, registered nurses make up the largest group of medical practitioners (Keenan, 2003). One issue that is not only affecting the nursing practice in the United States, but across the world, is short staffing of nurses in health care institutions, which means a decrease in the number of nurses in these health care center. An example of a negative consequences associated with the issue of short staffing of nurses is increase in patient mortality, and various solutions can be provided to ensure that the quality of care is not compromised further (Janiszewski Goodin, 2003),

To ensure patient safety and well-being, health care centers ought to employ an adequate number of nurses. Some of the major reasons being short staffing of nurses is a decrease in the overall budget allocated by the United States government for its health care programs, as well as increased demand for health care services (Keenan, 2003). It has also been noted that other career options are behind the decreased number of nurses in health care centers, as there are more lucrative career options for individuals. Short staffing of nurses may lead to a number of negative consequences, for example, increased rates of patient mortality and complexities in the delivery of health care. (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2003). From research carried out, in 2002, the shortage of registered nurses in the United States was around 125,000, and it is projected to rise to over 400,000 by 2020 (Aiken, Clarke, Sloane, Sochalski & Silber, 2002). In a study by University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, May, Bazzoli and Gerland (2006), observed the high mortality rates that can result from the inadequacy of nurse services within the hospital operation. There is the idea that if the nurses in a healthcare facility are few, then the present ones are overworked. The effect is spread to other staff like the physicians where for example when in an operation with few nurses they may have a lot to do which can result to errors. Janiszewski Goodin (2003), reported on a research that has found four main factors contributing to the nursing shortage in the USA. These factors are the declining enrollment in nursing schools, poor public image of nursing, the aging RN workforce population and the changing work climate.

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