1) Minimum 3 full pages 

               Cover or reference page not included

2)¨**********MLA norms

            All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraphs

            Bulleted responses are not accepted

            No write in the first person.

3) It will be verified by Turnitin and SafeAssign

4) 6 References (See attach)

_________________________________________________________________

1) Make a research paper following the outline (Outline-File 1) information not included in the outline is not accepted

2) Only use the attached articles as a source of information. There are a total of 6 articles.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Women’s Precollege Sports Participation,
Enjoyment of Sports, and Self-esteem

David R. Shaffer & Erin Wittes

Published online: 16 November 2006
# Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Abstract This study tested a model that specifies that the
psychosocial impact of women’s precollege sports partici-
pation depends on the quality of their sports experience,
that is, on participants’ enjoyment of sports and the benefits
derived from athletic pursuits. A sample of 245 college
women (mean age=19.9 years) provided retrospective
reports of their precollege sports involvement as well as
assessments of their enjoyment of sports, perceived
physical competence, body image, gender role orientation,
and self-esteem. Consistent with past research, women
students’ precollege sport participation was a modest
predictor of their self-esteem in bivariate analyses. Fol-
low-up analyses revealed that enjoyment of sports mediated
the sports participation/self-esteem relationship and implied
that female participants who find sports less enjoyable may
be at risk of experiencing declining self-esteem. However,
enjoyment of sports explained little unique variance in
global self-esteem after we controlled for the influence of
other sports-related benefits (e.g., improved physical
competence). Implications for those who hope to help
more girls reap psychosocial benefits from sporting
activities are discussed.

Keywords Sports . Enjoyment . Self-esteem

Sports and sporting activities play a prominent role in many
persons’ lives. Millions of spectators passionately track the
fortunes of their favorite teams and athletes, and a sizable
number of sports enthusiasts participate in one or more

athletic activities, either as formal participants in athletic
competitions or for recreational purposes. What benefits do
people derive from sporting activities, and to what extent
does their own participation influence their sense of self ?

Reasons for participating in sports are many and varied,
including, but not limited to, enjoyment of the activity, peer
and parental influence, presumed health benefits of partic-
ipation, and an increase in physical conditioning/well-being
(e.g., Battista, 1990; Brustad, 1988; Cote, 1999; Holland &
Andre, 1994; Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1986; Snyder &
Spreitzer, 1979). Among the most common presumed
psychosocial benefits of sports participation is an enhanced
sense of self-worth. Research on male samples is generally
consistent with the latter assertion, which suggests that
sports participation may have both short-term and long-
term effects on persons’ self-esteem (e.g., Pascarella &
Smart, 1991; Spretizer, 1994; Taylor, 1995; Vilhjamsson &
Thorlindsson, 1992).

Our focus in the present research centers on a presumed
motivation for participating in sports and psychosocial
benefits of such sports

Contribution of Athletic Identity to Child and Adolescent Physical
Activity

Cheryl B. Anderson, PhD1, Louise C. Mâsse, PhD3, Hong Zhang, MS2, Karen J. Coleman,
PhD4, and Shine Chang, PhD2
1 Department of Pediatrics Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine,
Houston, Texas
2 Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
3 Centre for Community Child Health Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British
Columbia
4 Department of Research & Evaluation, Southern California Permanente Medical Group,
Pasadena, California

Abstract
Background—Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the
differential investment of people’s time and effort in various activities.

Purpose—This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic
variables to physical activity and sports team participation.

Methods—Students in Grades 4–5 (n=391, mean age 9.9 years, range 8–13 years, collected in 2003)
and Grades 7–8 (n=948, mean age 13.6 years, range 11–15 years, collected in 2002 and 2006)
completed the 40-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire, which measures self-perceptions of athletic
appearance; competence; importance of physical activity and sports; and encouragement for activity
from parents, teachers, and friends. Hierarchic multiple regression analyses in 2008 assessed the
effects of athletic identity, race/ethnicity group, gender, and overweight status on 7-day moderate-
to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and organized sport team participation in each age group.

Results—In children and adolescents, the global score of athletic identity was independently,
positively related to MVPA (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) and team participation (p<0.0001,
p<0.0001, respectively), after controlling for demographic variables. More variance in MVPA was
explained in children (23%) than in adolescents (5%), in contrast to team sports (5% in children,
15% in adolescents). In the subscale analyses, positive relationships for appearance, competence,
importance, and parental encouragement persisted independent of demographic factors.

Conclusions—Results support the role of athletic self-concept in promoting physical activity and
organized sport participation in children and adolescents.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Cheryl B. Anderson, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, The
Children’s Nutrition Research Center, 1100 Bates St., Houston TX 77030. [email protected].
No financial disclosures were reported by the authors of this paper.
Publisher’s Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers
we

Haroona Qurban1,2 & Jin Wang1 & Hassan Siddique3 & Tony Morris4 & Zhi Qiao1

Published online: 12 October 2018

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine Chinese students’ motivation for sports participation using the theory of social learning.
We examined the role of parental support as a mediator of the relationship between motivation, self-esteem, and sports partic-
ipation. We operationalized parental support as tangible and intangible support provided by parents. We hypothesized that
motivation and self-esteem would be positively associated with tangible and intangible parental support, and parental support
would mediate the relationship between self-esteem, motivation, and sports participation. We administered questionnaires to 255
students (male = 71; mean age = 17.4, SD = 1.15; female = 184; mean age = 17.1, SD = 1.18) and either of their parents. We tested
our hypothesized model using structural equation modeling (SEM), which included testing a measurement model that specified
five latent variables and then compared the estimates generated by our hypothesized model with our data. We found our
hypothesized model fit the data well. As predicted, there were significant indirect effects of self-esteem and motivation on sports
participation through parental support, indicating evidence of mediation. The researchers suggest that parental support for
adolescents should be integrated and utilized for future interventions to promote sports participation in the cultural context of
China. Future studies with longitudinal follow-ups are suggested to explore actual causal relationships.

Keywords Parental support . Self-esteem . Motivation . Sports participation

Participation in sport is important for health and wellbeing in
childhood and adolescence, but it is declining in China (Lu
et al. 2017). In China, parents’ perception and attitude towards
their children’s health and sports participation have certain
limitations. Most Chinese parents know the significance of
physical activity (Liu et al. 2016), but research indicates that

they concentrate on promoting strong academic performance
among their children, leading to good jobs in the future
(Tudor-Locke et al. 2003). As a result, Chinese parents may
be more likely not to encourage sports participation for their
children (Fan et al. 2017).

Sports participation has declined among Chinese adoles-
cents in recent times. Liu et al. (2016) reported that more than
80% of young people in Shanghai, China are physically inac-
tive. The percentage of young people aged from 6 to 18 years
participating in organized sports/programs was only 14.9%.
For girls, the percentage was only 12%, which is lower than
for boys (17%).^ In 2015, the national PA survey report by the
General Administration of Sport of China revealed that 33.2%
of sampled Chinese children and adolescents aged 6–19 years
were physically

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Sport participation and its association with social and
psychological factors known to predict substance use and
abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature
Heather J. Clarka,b, Martin Camiréc, Terrance J. Waded and John Cairneye

aDepartment of Psychology, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada; bCanadian Centre on Substance Abuse,
Ottawa, ON, Canada; cSchool of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; dDepartment of
Community Health Sciences, Brock University, ON, Canada; eDepartment of Family Medicine, McMaster
University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

ABSTRACT
This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport
literature (2000–2014) on psychological and social outcomes
relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report
that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit
drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the
mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the
literature on sport participation and psychological and social
outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link.
Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a
paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use.
Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The
literature generally supported connections between sport and
positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem,
self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet
limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw
conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth
and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article
suggests a number of directions for future research that might
improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological
and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use.

ARTICLE HISTORY
Received 14 July 2014
Accepted 30 June 2015

KEYWORDS
Sport participation;
psychological factors; social
factors; alcohol use; drug use

Introduction

Both researchers and the sport community have expressed interest in using sport to
promote positive youth development (Bailey, 2006; Coalter, 2013; Eime, Young, Harvey,
Charity, & Payne, 2013). However, when we look critically at the evidence linking sport
to positive development, the results are often mixed. For example, systematic reviews
assessing the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use
among youth show conflicting evidence: youth sport participation can protect against
the use of illicit drugs, but presents a higher risk of increased alcohol consumption
(Kwan, Bobko, Faulkner, Donnelly, & Cairney, 2014; Lisha & Sussman, 2010).

© 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDeri