Topic: Professional Communication

Task: Summary writing

Reference: APA

Word Count: 800 Words

Duration: 16 Hours


Paper Description 

“You will be writing on professional communication I am going send you three articles , I would like you to write essay from that articles only please use them in references and I need APA referencing ( in-text references and at end). All information in essay I need from these three articles. The pictures are the rubric instruction that you need to adhere to. You will find the articles in the pdfs attached.

4 critical conversations for patient safety

patient safety and CommuniCation
Patient safety is defined as actions undertaken by individuals and organisations to protect healthcare
recipients from being harmed by their healthcare (National Patient Safety Foundation 2008). It is
important to note that patient safety is not limited to physical safety but also includes psychological,
emotional and cultural safety. Patient safety is an attribute of trustworthy healthcare systems
that work to minimise the incidence and impact of, and maximise recovery from, adverse events
(Emanuel et al. 2008). Patient safety is considered to be one of the most important issues facing
healthcare today. Health professionals need highly developed communication skills in order to
manage the complexity and competing tensions that define contemporary healthcare organisations.

Communication is much more than the provision of information, instructions or advice. It is a
two-way interaction where information, meanings and feelings are shared both verbally and non-
verbally and when the message being conveyed is understood as intended (Dunne 2005). Many
health professionals think that effective communication means giving patients clear, unambiguous
information in a timely manner. This is true, but it is only part of the story. Communication involves
listening as well as talking. When we listen to patients, we are less likely to jump to erroneous
conclusions because we haven’t seen the whole picture (this is referred to as premature closure).

Patients expect to be communicated with in ways that are inclusive, accurate, timely and
appropriate. The Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights (Box 1.1) outlines patients’ rights in
regards to healthcare and emphasises that communication and working in partnership with patients
underpin safe care. Indeed, communication is considered by many people to be one of the most
important aspects of quality healthcare. In 2009 Australian patients and their families were surveyed
in an attempt to clarify what their priorities were when undergoing healthcare (New South Wales
Health 2009). The list in Box 1.2 demonstrates the importance of communication to the survey
participants’ healthcare experience and illustrates the particular elements of communication that
they believed were key. It is noteworthy that the only other clinical concern mentioned was in
relation to pain management.

Effective communication impacts on patient outcomes in many ways. Studies have
demonstrated a relationship between effective communication and compliance with medication and
rehabilitation programs, reduction in stress and anxiety (Harms 2007), improved pain management,
self-management, mood, self-esteem, functional and psychological status (Goleman 2006),
symptom resolution, reduced length of hospitalisation, improved coordination of care, reduced
costs (Mickan & R

15Chapter two Key attributes of patient-safe CommuniCation

patient-Centred Care
Recognition that patient-centred care is arguably the most important attribute of patient-safe
communication is changing the landscape of contemporary healthcare and health professional
education. The traditional view of patients as passive recipients of care has given way to one where
patients are seen as active participants and integral members of the healthcare team. Patients (and
their families) are now seen to have a vested interest and valuable perspective in ensuring safe care.

There are various definitions of the term ‘patient-centred care’, with each underpinned by
principles such as empathy, dignity, autonomy, respect, choice, transparency, and a desire to help
individuals lead the life they want. Patient-centred care is built on the understanding that patients
bring their own experiences, skills and knowledge about their condition and illness. It is a holistic
approach to the planning, delivery and evaluation of healthcare that is grounded in mutually
beneficial partnerships between healthcare professionals, patients and families. Patient-centred care
applies to people of all ages and can be practised in any healthcare setting (Institute for Patient- and
Family-Centered Care 2008).

Health professionals who practise patient-centred care are ethical, open-minded, self-aware and
have a profound sense of personal responsibility for actions (moral agency). They place the ‘person’ at
the centre of healthcare and consider their needs and wishes as paramount (Victorian Government
Department of Human Services 2006). Patient-centred clinicians:
• appreciate that people have a unique life history that influences their healthcare experience
• seek to understand the patient’s perspective
• inform and involve patients in their care
• promote active involvement of family and friends
• elicit patient preferences
• check and confirm information with patients
• share treatment decisions
• respect patients’ culture, values and personal beliefs
• provide physical and emotional comfort and support
• maintain patients’ dignity
• design care processes to suit patients’ needs, not the provider’s needs
• ensure coordination and continuity of care
• are transparent and provide access to health information
• are sensitive to non-medical and spiritual dimensions of care
• guide patients to appropriate sources of information on health and healthcare
• educate patients on how to protect their health and prevent occurrence or recurrence of a

• provide support for self-care and self-management
• communicate information on risk and probability.

Source: Gerteis et al. 1993; Robb & Seddon 2006; Shaller 2007.

protocols and policies. You can lock the door and say, “Sorry, Mrs Gruzenski, your 30 minutes are
up.” But, you can also unlock the door. You can

assessment skills to clarify and identify the person’s health problem, birthing/parenting
support and related needs. The needs might relate to care while an inpatient or it
might relate to their needs when they go home.

It is essential that an interprofessional collaborative approach is used to plan care
that is person-centred. Communicating effectively together (and with the person
receiving care) enables healthcare team members to support and complement one
another’s services and avoid duplications and omissions in planning and coordinating
care. Nurses and midwives in their various roles can advocate for that person’s
holistic needs to be met through effectively documenting needs, making referrals
through face-to-face meetings and consultation with other professionals. This chapter
discusses the different ways nurses and midwives properly document care, report
care and how they formally confer with others to ensure people’s continuity of care
needs are met.

In Australia and New Zealand, the current healthcare system requires that all
nurses and midwives are competent in documenting their client’s care to ensure
continuity of care, that legal records are kept about the care given so that the
documentation can also provide a trail and evidence for evaluating and auditing the
effectiveness of the care given (Blair & Smith, 2012). Documentation of care is
therefore an important source of reference and communication between all health
professionals including nurses and midwives, with implications for continuity of care
and interprofessional collaborative practice. The health standards set by government
accrediting bodies in Australia and New Zealand has specific guidelines for
documenting clinical data and care. Nurses and midwives need to document
concisely, and have a system of non-duplication and evidence-based care to ensure
quality and safety. The following section explores documentation and some of the
different ways and systems of documenting care that are used in our healthcare

Documentation is any written or electronically generated legal record of all pertinent
interactions with the client that describes the care and services provided to that
person. Documentation is a written record of the healthcare professional interacting
with the person on all levels of care including assessing, identifying health problems,
and planning, implementing and evaluating care. Increasingly sophisticated
management information systems (MIS) are becoming available to manage patient-
specific data and information, as well as provide access through clinical databases
for evidence-based practice. The data obtained from a MIS are used to facilitate
person care, serve as lega