PICO and Literature Search

Remember we only need PICO for this class

Purpose: PICO questions are used by practicing nurses and researchers to focus research questions and develop an efficient literature search strategy.  It is essential that future nurses learn how to do this to develop evidenced-based solutions to patient care problems in a healthcare organization. 

Assessment:  This assignment is worth 68 points.  It is graded according to the embedded rubric in this submission folder. 

Instructions:

1. Write a PICO question based on a scenario you choose from the list of scenarios attached below.  Use the templates in the EBP Step by Step 3 article to help create your questions. You may need to do a pre-search to finding an intervention (the “I”) that has been studied and published to solve the problem.

2. Identify the PICO elements for each question. 

3. Develop a search strategy using at least 3 keywords from the P, I, and O parts of your PICO, 1 synonym for one of the keywords, and 1 MeSH term for one of your keywords. 

4. Locate 4 articles that help answer your PICO question.  The articles must meet the following requirements: 

o must be primary source quantitative research articles.  

o No article can be published prior to 2016. 

5. Obtain pdfs of the four articles you selected and attach it for submission.  They must show the full text of the entire article.

6. On a Word document, include your scenario; write your PICO question as a sentence; identify the P, I, C, and O for each question; and list the search terms (3 keywords, 1 synonym, 1 MeSH term) for each. You may use the template attached here. See also the link to the MeSH terms website below.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/

7. Provide a properly formatted APA reference page for your selected articles from Step 4 of these instructions. 

PICO and Literature Search

Remember we only need PICO for this class

Purpose: PICO questions are used by practicing nurses and researchers to focus research questions and develop an efficient literature search strategy.  It is essential that future nurses learn how to do this to develop evidenced-based solutions to patient care problems in a healthcare organization. 

 

Assessment:  This assignment is worth 68 points.  It is graded according to the embedded rubric in this submission folder. 

 

Instructions:

1. Write a PICO question based on a scenario you choose from the list of scenarios attached below.  Use the templates in the EBP Step by Step 3 article to help create your questions. You may need to do a pre-search to finding an intervention (the “I”) that has been studied and published to solve the problem.

2. Identify the PICO elements for each question. 

3. Develop a search strategy using at least 3 keywords from the P, I, and O parts of your PICO, 1 synonym for one of the keywords, and 1 MeSH term for one of your keywords. 

4. Locate 4 articles that help answer your PICO question.  The articles must meet the following requirements: 

· must be primary source quantitative research articles.  

· No article can be published prior to 2016. 

5. Obtain pdfs of the four articles you selected and attach it for submission.  They must show the full text of the entire article.

6. On a Word document, include your scenario; write your PICO question as a sentence; identify the P, I, C, and O for each question; and list the search terms (3 keywords, 1 synonym, 1 MeSH term) for each. You may use the template attached here. See also the link to the MeSH terms website below.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/

7. Provide a properly formatted APA reference page for your selected articles from Step 4 of these instructions.

1:

Delegation: A unit employs RNs, LPN’s and PCTs (patient care techs) to provide direct care. The unit has had an issue with appropriate delegation. The PCTs and LPNs report that they are being asked to perform more than their “fair share”, and things they should not do. The RN’s state that they are the only ones who do anything, and every time they ask the LPNs and PCTs to do anything they are told the PCTs and LPNs are not allowed to perform the task. The Unit manager recognizes that efforts to improve delegation need to be made. Your task is to research an intervention to enhance the quality and practice of delegation on this unit.

2:

Decreasing wait times in ER or patient flow time to move from ED: A manager of an Emergency Department is concerned that patient satisfaction scores have dropped significantly for the department. The primary complaint is long wait times. Internal tracking of patient flow has shown patients are waiting up to 7 hours for transfers to patient care areas, or to hospital units. Your task is to research an intervention to decrease wait times with improved flow to the care areas.

3:

New grad nurse retention: The manager of a medical surgical unit that is expanding needs to hire additional staff. Over the last 3 years 90% of the new graduates hired have quit within the first year of hire. The current RN staff is comprised of 8 nurses with greater than 10 yrs experience, 6 nurses with 5-10 yrs experience and 7 nurses with less than 5 yrs experience on the unit. Six new graduates are hired for the expansion. They will start 3 months before the new beds open. Your task is to research an intervention to enhance retention of the new graduates.

4:

Reducing medication errors: A medical surgical unit manager has had a significant increase in medication administration errors over the last two months. The errors involve many staff members and are occurring on all shifts. The budget does not allow for the purchase of new administration system. Your task is to research an intervention to decrease medication administration errors from the nursing staff within these parameters.

5:

Patient family centered care: The manager of a medical surgical unit has experienced a significant drop in patient satisfaction with the primary complaints being a lack of communication to patients and their family members. Your task is to research an intervention to increase patient-family centered care environment that would address this issue.

6:

Evidence-based practice: A hospital is seeking Magnet Hospital status. The managers of the units are charged with enhancing the incorporation of evidenced based practice on a unit level. Your task is to research an inter

T
o fully implement evidence-
based practice (EBP),
nurses need to have both

a spirit of inquiry and a culture
that supports it. Inour first article
in this series (“Igniting a Spirit of
Inquiry:AnEssential Foundation
for Evidence-Based Practice,”
November 2009),we defined a
spirit of inquiry as “an ongoing
curiosity about the best evidence
toguide clinical decisionmaking.”
A spirit of inquiry is the founda-
tionof EBP, andonce nurses pos-
sess it, it’s easier to take the next
step—toask the clinical question.1

Formulating a clinical question
in a systematicwaymakes it pos-
sible to find an answermore
quickly and efficiently, leading to
improved processes and patient
outcomes.
In the last installment,wegave

an overviewof themultistepEBP
process (“The Seven Steps of
Evidence-Based Practice,” Janu-
ary). Thismonthwe’ll discuss
step one, asking the clinical
question. As a context for this
discussionwe’ll use the same

scenariowe used in the previous
articles (see Case Scenario for
EBP: Rapid Response Teams).
In this scenario, a staff nurse,

let’s call herRebeccaR., noted
that patients on hermedical–
surgical unit had a high acuity
level thatmay have led to an in-
crease in cardiac arrests and in the

number of patients transferred
to the ICU.Of thepatientswho
had a cardiac arrest, four died.
Rebecca sharedwith her nurse
manager a recently published
study onhow the use of a rapid
response teamresulted in reduced
in-hospital cardiac arrests andun-
planned admissions to the critical

Asking the Clinical Question: A Key Step in
Evidence-Based Practice

A successful search strategy starts with a well-formulated question.

This is the third article in a series from the Arizona State University College of Nursing and Health Innovation’s Center
for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to the
delivery of health care that integrates the best evidence from studies and patient care data with clinician expertise and
patient preferences and values. When delivered in a context of caring and in a supportive organizational culture, the
highest quality of care and best patient outcomes can be achieved.

The purpose of this series is to give nurses the knowledge and skills they need to implement EBP consistently, one
step at a time. Articles will appear every two months to allow you time to incorporate information as you work toward
implementing EBP at your institution. Also, we’ve scheduled “Ask the Authors” call-ins every few months to provide a
direct line to the experts to help you resolve questions. Details about how to participate in the next call will be pub-
lished with May’s Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step.

Case Scenario for EBP: Rapid Response Teams

You’re a staff nurse on a busy medical–surgical unit. Overthe past three months, you’ve noticed that the pat

2

Student Name:

PICO and Literature Search

NUR4440

Scenario: Non-Pharmacological Management of Dementia: On the neurology inpatient unit, there are increasing numbers of patients with dementia. Some of the symptoms noted in these patients include agitation, wandering and even screaming and violence. A nurse on the unit was recently injured by an elderly man who attacked and hit her while she was providing nursing care to him. Your task is to propose a plan that will address the non-pharmacological management of dementia on the unit and train the nurses to provide quality care to patients with dementia.

PICO Question: In adults with Alzheimer’s disease, what is the effect of animal-assisted therapy compared to usual care on the intensity of agitation?

P: adults with Alzheimer’s disease

I: animal-assisted therapy

C: usual care

O: intensity of agitation

3 Keywords: Alzheimer’s, animal-assisted therapy, agitation

1 Synonym: dementia

1 MeSH term: psychomotor agitation

References

Majic, T., Gutzmann, H., Heinz, A., Lang, U. E., & Rapp, M. A. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia: A matched case-control trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(11), 1052-1059. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2013.03.004

Nordgren, L., & Engström, G. (2014). Effects of dog-assisted intervention on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Nursing Older People, 26(3), 31-38. https://doi.org/10.7748/nop2014.03.26.3.31.e517

Olsen, C., Pedersen, I., Bergland, A., Enders‐Slegers, M., Patil, G., & Ihlebæk, C. (2016). Effect of animal-assisted interventions on depression, agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia: A cluster randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(12), 1312-1321. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4436

Swall, A., Ebbeskog, B., Lundh Hagelin, C., & Fagerberg, I. (2017). Stepping out of the shadows of Alzheimer’s disease: A study of older people with Alzheimer’s disease caring for a therapy dog. International Journal of Studies on Health & Well-Being, 12(1), 124-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2017.1347013

Updated 8/29/2020 CJP

7/14/2021 Module 2: Assignment 1 (PICO and Lit Search) – NUR4440-F20-E1N:Research in Nursing (2021 Summer Term F)-13287 – Resurrection University

7/14/2021 Module 2: Assignment 1 (PICO and Lit Search) – NUR4440-F20-E1N:Research in Nursing (2021 Summer Term F)-13287 – Resurrection University

7/14/2021 Module 2: Assignment 1 (PICO and Lit Search) – NUR4440-F20-E1N:Research in Nursing (2021 Summer Term F)-13287 – Resurrection University

PICO and Literature Search Rubric

Total

/ 68

/ 10

/ 3

Criteria

Mastery

Proficient

Developing

Beginning

Unsatisfactory

Criterion Score

Article citations

in correct APA

format

Articles are no

older than 2016

AND

PDFs of all

articles are

provided

10

points

no unique errors

points

9

1

unique error

points

8

unique errors

2

7

points

3

unique errors

6

points

or more unique

4

errors

3

points

Yes

0

points

0

points

0

points

0

points

No

Overall Score

Advanced

63

points minimum

Proficient

58

points minimum

Developing

51

points minimum

Beginning

41

points minimum

Unsatisfactory

40

points minimum

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