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Answer the following: for each answer must be a minimum of 200 words or more. You must cite referenced answers with reading citations, with page numbers, parenthetical style (Author, Date: page#), and the source listed APA style at the end of the post.
After reading chapters 1-4, answer the following questions
1. What are five chronic disease conditions that might be positively influenced by participation in regular physical activity? Describe and discuss TWO.
2. What are the pros and cons of collecting self-report data (daily logs, interviews, questionnaires) about physical activity?
Fundamentals of Public Health
In this chapter we are going to learn about the definition and history of public health, how public health has become specialized and the five main pillars of public health, the five main principles that guide health promotion and health education efforts in public health, and the 10 essential functions that support the core services of public health. We are also going to learn why public health policy is often linked to legal and regulatory systems and the emerging physical activity specialization in public health.
Public Health and Medicine
What is Public Health?
Earliest roots of public health have been traced back to mid-14th century
The cholera epidemic of 1830s to 1850s created the basic foundation for the field of public health
Physician John Snow through his observation, data collection, and disease comparison founded the science of epidemiology.
Difference between Public Health and Medicine
The key difference between public health and medicine is:
Public health traditionally has focused less on individuals and treatment and more on populations and prevention
Perhaps public health is in scenario from the time diseases were affecting humanity. The earliest roots of public health have been traced back to mid-14th century. Though today this discipline has more organized infrastructure, the cholera epidemic of 1830s to 1850s created the basic foundation for the field of public health. In the London cholera epidemic of 1849 and 1853-54, physician John Snow through his observation, data collection, and disease comparison founded the science of epidemiology. Since then, the core principal of public health is to promote and protect health and to prevent disease and disability.
While medicine is integral to public health and vice versa , there is one fundamental difference between them. As your text describes (on page 4) “The key difference between public health and medicine is that public health traditionally has focused less on individuals and treatment and more on populations and prevention”. As such, the focus of public health has always been and will be on the diseases or conditions that affect significant portion of the population rather than rare conditions that affects a few.
Defining Moments in Public Health
Killed about 25% of the population
Vital statistics system
Developed by John Graunt
Systematic record of age, sex, who died, of what, where, and when. Record of how many persons per year died of what kind of event or disease
John Snow and Cholera outbreak
Proposed the radical idea a
Fundamentals of Kinesiology
In this chapter we are going to learn the field of kinesiology and how its sub-disciplines have contributed to our understanding of exercise, fitness, and maximizing performance. We will know about the shifting paradigm of the promotion of public health benefits through physical activity, the concepts and principles of exercise training, the general health, fitness, and performance effects of physical activity and exercise. Finally we will learn how to integrate the principles of traditional exercise prescription programming for individuals into physical activity and exercise plans for populations.
Fundamentals of Kinesiology
Kinesiology sub-disciplines contribute to our understanding of:
Exercise, fitness, and maximizing performance
We are in a shifting paradigm of the promotion of public health benefits through physical activity
Applying concepts and principles of exercise training, the general health, fitness, and performance effects of physical activity and exercise
How to integrate the principles of traditional exercise prescription programming for individuals into physical activity and exercise plans for populations
Any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure (i.e., burning of calories )
Specific type of physical activity that is planed, repetitive, and done for a specific purpose
A set of measurable physiological parameter
Definitions for terms like physical activity, exercise, physical fitness, health-related fitness, and skill-related fitness are all important to understand and to use for effective communication in the field of physical activity and public health. Any type of bodily movement that results in energy expenditure is named as physical activity whereas exercise refers to specific type of activity that is planned and is done for specific purpose for example working out in a gym would be an example of exercise and getting groceries out from the car trunk would be an example for physical activity. Physical fitness is little bit different than physical activity and exercise. It has been described as a set of attributes a person has or wants to achieve. These attributes relate to a person’s ability and or capacity to perform a specific type of physical activity efficiently and effectively, for example the fitness requirement for tennis.
Attributes that are thought to be related to improved health (e.g., reductions in chronic diseases, injuries, and rates of disability)
Integrating Public Health and Physical Activity
In this chapter we will be learning about the history of physical activity and public health, how science is translated into practice in physical activity and public health, and how the application of scientific findings differentiates physical activity and public health from other areas such as medicine and exercise.
Physical Activity and Public Health
Field of study that looks at the health effects and risks of physical activity and ways to help people become active and maintain a healthy level of activity throughout their lives
Public health is the study of preventing diseases and promoting health, more precisely promoting health of community and populations. Integrating physical activity in public health is an area of study where the health effects of physical activity is measured and the ways of physical activity initiation and maintenance is researched.
History of PA and Public Health
Dr. Jeremy N. Morris (1953 Study)
Studied heart disease and consequences among workers employed by the London transport system
Result showed physically active conductors had significantly lower rates of CHD than the less active drivers
Physical activity for health concepts started to evolve.
The formal study of physical activity is much newer though the concepts had originated long before. Early 1900 and 20th century witnessed the growth of exercise science and expansion of personal physical education. Epidemiology, the basic field of public health also advanced in the 20th century. The field of exercise science and public health came closer by a study which was done on 1953 in London. An Epidemiologist named Jeremy N. Morris conducted a study on workers of the London transportation system to observe causes and consequences of heart diseases. He was particularly interested in seeing the amount of physical activity men get as course of their jobs and how that relates to risk of heart diseases. Dr. Morris looked at the bus drivers who were basically inactive as they were sitting and driving the bus and the bus conductors who were more active as they were walking up and down all the time to collect the tickets form the bus riders. Interestingly, the connection between coronary heart disease and physical activity idea evolved through this research as Morris found out physical active bus conductors were less likely to have coronary heart disease than less active bus drivers. The studies published by Dr. Morris on occupational physical activity, is viewed today as the grandfather of physical activity and health.
History of PA and Public
Measuring Physical Activity
In this chapter we will learn about techniques to measure individuals’ physical activity and the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques, fundamentals of physical activity surveillance and sources of public health information on physical activity
Importance of Fitness Assessments
What are the best ways to measure PA & exercise?
Qualitative values of such techniques
What is needed to measure PA most accurately among individual versus small/large group of people?
What methods should be used in controlled laboratory settings and in free-living populations?
As we already have learned the difference between PA, exercise and physical fitness, have already seen the guidelines developed for all ages, the next thing that comes in mind is what are the best ways to measure PA and exercise? How valid are these measurements? How do we measure individual versus small/large group? What methods should be used in controlled laboratory setting and in free living populations?
Total energy expenditure (TEE)
Physical Activity Energy Expenditure + The Thermic effect of food + Basal Metabolic Energy Expenditure
Physical Activity Energy Expenditure(PAEE)
The energy expenditure that is specifically the result of PA
The Thermal Effect of Food (TEF)
The amount of energy that is used to digest and metabolize energy that is ingested (food & drink)
Basal Metabolic Energy Expenditure (BMEE)
Energy expended to maintain breathing and circulation at rest
Laboratory Measures of Energy Expenditure
Laboratory based techniques are based on the attempts of assess calorie expenditure or the amount of energy it takes for a person to be physically active, to breath, to circulate blood, or to digest food. Total energy expenditure (TEE) is the sum of physical Activity Energy Expenditure ,the Thermic effect of food and the basal Metabolic Energy Expenditure. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure (PAEE) is defined as the energy expenditure that is specifically the result of PA. The Thermal Effect of Food (TEF) is the amount of energy that is used to digest and metabolize energy that is ingested (food & drink).Basal Metabolic Energy Expenditure (BMEE) is the energy expended to maintain breathing and circulation at rest.
60-%70% of a person’s TEE is BMEE
10% of TEE is used to digest food
20%-30% is for PAEE
Most often used laboratory technique
The amount of oxygen used and carbon dioxide expelled is used to estimate energy expenditure
Very good indicator of total energy expenditure in controlled setting