• Type of paper Article Review
     
  • Subject Healthcare
     
  • Number of pages 6
     
  • Format of citation APA
     
  • Number of cited resources  0
     
  • Type of service  Editing
     

See attachments ; 1- The paper to be edited  2- The instruction to edit the paper  3- example let review paper similar to my topic so you see the result and conclusion part how to do them .

A Review of the Effectiveness of Hand Hygiene Intervention to Reduce the Spread of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- Producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among ICU Patients

Abstract

Background: Historically, Multidrug resistant organisms including the Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) are a major public health predicament not only in the United States but also globally as infections caused by those organisms are linked to severe health complications and great financial liability to the healthcare system. There are many interventions strategies have been put in place to eliminate or to reduce the risk of the ESBL infections, yet the search for an effective prevention control strategy will always stay a challenge to the public health. Objective: The purpose of this review is to measure the effectiveness of the hand hygiene as an intervention to reduce the spread of the ESBLs among severely ill patients in the ICU. Methods: An article search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL databases to identify publications on the effectiveness of hand hygiene intervention to reduce the spread of the ESBLs among ICU’s patients. The search was limited to English language, human subjects, and date range of 2002-current. A total of 10 articles were eligible for this review. Results: Strategic and organizational efforts were made to improve hand hygiene compliances. Among the observed opportunities for hand hygiene, increased staff compliances were noted. 8 out of 10 of those studies showed that increase rate of hand hygiene compliance was correlated with a significant reduction in the prevalence of ESBLs infections among hospital patients, however 2 of the studies did not show any correlation. Conclusions: The results of this review suggest that a systemic approach is needed to improve compliances with the hand hygiene intervention among hospital staff to be an effective strategy to eliminate or to reduce the transmission of ESBLs among ICU’s patients.



Key words

; ESBL, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, Intervention, Effectiveness, Hand Hygiene, ICU, Intensive Care Unit, Prevalence.

Introduction

Infections that are caused by Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases-Producing

Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has a significant impact on clinical outcomes, including

delays in infusing the appropriate antibiotic treatment and increased the chance of

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The efficacy of infection control
interventions in reducing the incidence
of extended-spectrum b-lactamase-
producing Enterobacteriaceae in the
nonoutbreak setting: A systematic
review

Shannon Goddard, MD, FRCPC,a and Matthew P. Muller, MD, PhD, FRCPCa,b

Toronto, Canada

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We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy of infection control interventions for the control of ESBL-producing
Enterobacteriaceae in hospitals in the non-outbreak setting. Although 4 uncontrolled, retrospective studies were included in the
review, no well designed prospective studies capable of informing infection control practice were identified, underscoring the ur-
gent need for research in this area.
Key Words: ESBL; infection control; systematic review; Enterobacteriaceae; multi-drug resistant gram negative bacteria.

Copyright ª 2011 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
reserved. (Am J Infect Control 2011;39:599-601.)

Despite the increasing global incidence of extended-
spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteri-
aceae (ESBL-E), there are no evidence-based guidelines
specifying the infection control interventions that
should be used to control ESBL-E transmission in hos-
pitals in the absence of a defined outbreak.1 We con-
ducted a systematic review to determine which, if
any, infection control interventions are effective in re-
ducing the incidence of ESBL-E among hospitalized
patients in the nonoutbreak setting.

METHODS

We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the
Cochrane Library for studies published from January
1985 to April 2010. The search terms used included
terms to identify the organism (eg, Enterobacteriaceae),

the Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto,
daa; and Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Michael’s Hospital,
to, Canada.b

ess correspondence to Matthew P. Muller, MD, PhD, FRCPC,
ichael’s Hospital, 30 Bond St, 4CC wing, room 4-178, Toronto,
M5B 1W8, Canada. E-mail:
[email protected].

icts of interest: None to report.

-6553/$36.00

right ª 2011 by the Association for Professionals in Infection
rol and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
ved.

0.1016/j.ajic.2010.09.018

the mechanism of resistance (eg, ESBL), and the inter-
vention (eg, contact precautions). The complete search
strategy is available from the authors on request.

Studies were included if the study was designed as a
randomized controlled trial (RCT), time series analysis,
or quasi-experimental study; if they included an
infect

F
C
T

A
S
O

C

0

C
C
r

d

The efficacy of infection control
interventions in reducing the incidence
of extended-spectrum b-lactamase-
producing Enterobacteriaceae in the
nonoutbreak setting: A systematic
review

Shannon Goddard, MD, FRCPC,a and Matthew P. Muller, MD, PhD, FRCPCa,b

Toronto, Canada

rom
ana
oron

ddr
t. M
N,

onfl

196

opy
ont
eser

oi:1

We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy of infection control interventions for the control of ESBL-producing
Enterobacteriaceae in hospitals in the non-outbreak setting. Although 4 uncontrolled, retrospective studies were included in the
review, no well designed prospective studies capable of informing infection control practice were identified, underscoring the ur-
gent need for research in this area.
Key Words: ESBL; infection control; systematic review; Enterobacteriaceae; multi-drug resistant gram negative bacteria.

Copyright ª 2011 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
reserved. (Am J Infect Control 2011;39:599-601.)

Despite the increasing global incidence of extended-
spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteri-
aceae (ESBL-E), there are no evidence-based guidelines
specifying the infection control interventions that
should be used to control ESBL-E transmission in hos-
pitals in the absence of a defined outbreak.1 We con-
ducted a systematic review to determine which, if
any, infection control interventions are effective in re-
ducing the incidence of ESBL-E among hospitalized
patients in the nonoutbreak setting.

METHODS

We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the
Cochrane Library for studies published from January
1985 to April 2010. The search terms used included
terms to identify the organism (eg, Enterobacteriaceae),

the Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto,
daa; and Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Michael’s Hospital,
to, Canada.b

ess correspondence to Matthew P. Muller, MD, PhD, FRCPC,
ichael’s Hospital, 30 Bond St, 4CC wing, room 4-178, Toronto,
M5B 1W8, Canada. E-mail: [email protected].

icts of interest: None to report.

-6553/$36.00

right ª 2011 by the Association for Professionals in Infection
rol and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
ved.

0.1016/j.ajic.2010.09.018

the mechanism of resistance (eg, ESBL), and the inter-
vention (eg, contact precautions). The complete search
strategy is available from the authors on request.

Studies were included if the study was designed as a
randomized controlled trial (RCT), time series analysis,
or quasi-experimental study; if they included an
infect



US Policy Making Process

1- what are the 3 main phases of the US policy making process? Describe briefly

2- what are the roles of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches in each of these phases? What is the role of the public and society broadly speaking in each of these phases?


US Health Policy and the Accountable Care Act

Healthcare Policy in the United States has been largely consumed over almost the past decade by Affordable Care Act.

1- Why does universal access to healthcare continue to be debated in the United States, and in what ways is this discussion different from the healthcare discussion in other countries?

2- What were the various roles of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches in the initial implementation of the ACA? What has been the recent debate about the ACA and what legislative changes have been made to it?

3- What is the difference between healthcare charges, reimbursement, and costs, and why is this important to the notion of a competitive marketplace for healthcare services?


Title V Activities

Answer the following questions in regards to the History and Basics of Title V.

1- What was the Children’s Bureau of 1912? What was its main goal/mission statement?

2- What is Title V of the Social Security Act and what legislation over the years has increased accountability of this program and how?

3- Describe the current Title V performance measurement framework. What are the 3 tiers of the framework, and what is the definition and relevance of ESMs, NPMs, and NOMs in this framework?

4- Provide examples of data sources that are used in the Title V performance measurement framework.


Healthy People 2020

As we have learned, Healthy People 2020 collects data and develops goals for the improvement of the Health of the United States. Answer the following questions.

1- What is the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)?

2- What are some of the Surveys that are produced by NCHS, and how are they used?

3- What is Healthy People 2020, what is its purpose, where is it housed, and how is it used?

F
C
T

A
S
O

C

0

C
C
r

d

The efficacy of infection control
interventions in reducing the incidence
of extended-spectrum b-lactamase-
producing Enterobacteriaceae in the
nonoutbreak setting: A systematic
review

Shannon Goddard, MD, FRCPC,a and Matthew P. Muller, MD, PhD, FRCPCa,b

Toronto, Canada

rom
ana
oron

ddr
t. M
N,

onfl

196

opy
ont
eser

oi:1

We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy of infection control interventions for the control of ESBL-producing
Enterobacteriaceae in hospitals in the non-outbreak setting. Although 4 uncontrolled, retrospective studies were included in the
review, no well designed prospective studies capable of informing infection control practice were identified, underscoring the ur-
gent need for research in this area.
Key Words: ESBL; infection control; systematic review; Enterobacteriaceae; multi-drug resistant gram negative bacteria.

Copyright ª 2011 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
reserved. (Am J Infect Control 2011;39:599-601.)

Despite the increasing global incidence of extended-
spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteri-
aceae (ESBL-E), there are no evidence-based guidelines
specifying the infection control interventions that
should be used to control ESBL-E transmission in hos-
pitals in the absence of a defined outbreak.1 We con-
ducted a systematic review to determine which, if
any, infection control interventions are effective in re-
ducing the incidence of ESBL-E among hospitalized
patients in the nonoutbreak setting.

METHODS

We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the
Cochrane Library for studies published from January
1985 to April 2010. The search terms used included
terms to identify the organism (eg, Enterobacteriaceae),

the Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto,
daa; and Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Michael’s Hospital,
to, Canada.b

ess correspondence to Matthew P. Muller, MD, PhD, FRCPC,
ichael’s Hospital, 30 Bond St, 4CC wing, room 4-178, Toronto,
M5B 1W8, Canada. E-mail: [email protected].

icts of interest: None to report.

-6553/$36.00

right ª 2011 by the Association for Professionals in Infection
rol and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
ved.

0.1016/j.ajic.2010.09.018

the mechanism of resistance (eg, ESBL), and the inter-
vention (eg, contact precautions). The complete search
strategy is available from the authors on request.

Studies were included if the study was designed as a
randomized controlled trial (RCT), time series analysis,
or quasi-experimental study; if they included an
infect

Consumers Union Policy Brief on MRSA

Hospitals Should Screen Patients for MRSA to Prevent Infections

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that nearly 19,000 Americans
died in 2005 from Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections acquired in
hospitals and other health care settings.1 MRSA is resistant to many available antibiotics and is
spreading quickly in healthcare facilities across the country. Unfortunately, most hospitals are
not taking the steps they need to stem the alarming incidence of MRSA.

Staphylococcus aureus, or “staph,” is a bacterium that is found on the skin or in the nose of an
estimated 25 percent of the population.2 Individuals who are colonized with staph are normally
healthy and without any symptoms, although they may experience minor skin infections. In the
hospital, staph can cause more serious infections, such as surgical wound infections, bloodstream
infections, and pneumonia.

Staph infections are usually treated with methicillin, but some staph bacteria have developed a
resistance to this and other antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
infections are becoming more common. In 1974, only two percent of staph infections in
hospitals were caused by MRSA. By 2004, MRSA infections made up nearly 63 percent of all
staph infections in healthcare settings.3

MRSA Infections Are Widespread

In June 2007, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)
released the first-ever nationwide analysis on the prevalence of MRSA in U.S. healthcare
facilities based on data collected from more than 1,200 hospitals in all 50 states. The APIC
report found that MRSA hospital-acquired infections are 8.6 times more prevalent than previous
estimates and those MRSA infections are found in all wards throughout most hospitals. This is
significant as APIC found that less than half (45 percent) of hospitals are tracking infections
throughout the hospital – the rest are focusing only on intensive care, surgical, or high risk
nursery patients.4

An estimated 95,000 people developed MRSA infections in 2005, according to CDC
researchers.5 Hospitalizations due to MRSA infections have doubled in recent years. Between
1999 and 2005, the number of patients hospitalized with MRSA infections went from 127,000 to
almost 280,000.6

While MRSA once affected primarily the sick and elderly in hospitals, according to many
published reports it has now spread outside of these facilities. The bugs, typically different
strains than the types found in hospitals, are striking young, healthy people through contact with
infected skin mainly by sharing towels or other personal items. However, the community strain
is now being spread in hospitals when patients unknowingly carry it in.

Instruction on editing the literature review paper

1- The Result and the conclusion parts (yellow highlighted) need to be summarized and fixed, I entered the results as it is written in the articles , they need to be quoted and cited as per each article , see attached literature review article for example how to summarize and quotes results and conclusion .

2- APA PAPER FORMAT

· ABSTRACT INDENTATION. The abstract should be one paragraph and is not indented. This is the only paragraph of the paper that is not indented.

· KEYWORDS FORMAT. The keywords come on the line immediately below the abstract, and are indented 1/2″, with “Keywords” as one word: in italics, capitalized, not bold, and followed by a colon. If the keywords continue onto the next line, they are formatted like a paragraph on the left margin.

· KEYWORDS. The keywords should include only key content terms, and should not be capitalized. Don’t use phrases that are too general to be meaningful.

· PAPER TITLE; be centered, in title case (each word is capitalized), but not bold.

· INTRODUCTION–NO HEADING. The introduction of your paper should start immediately after the title of the paper, but with NO heading to indicate that it is the introduction.

· MARGINS. Margins need to be 1 inch from all edges and consistent throughout the paper

· SECTION SPACING. Paragraphs and sections should be double-spaced between, and new sections should follow immediately after the end of a preceding section.

· REFERENCE HEADING. The reference heading should say “References” and is capitalized, centered, but not bold.

· REFERENCE SPACING. References should be double-spaced starting from the header, with no extra line space after each reference.

· You should not include the outline in the paper.

· Be sure not to overuse the semi-colon. You only need it when you are connecting two completely separate sentences. Check your paper for that. Also, you do not have commas where you need them sometimes. Like “according to B (2017) …” you need a comma after a non-complete phrase like that.

3- APA CITATION FORMAT

· FACTS WITHOUT CITATION. You need to make sure that all sentences with facts have a citation. You may need to connect sentences with a semi-colon to make that happen.

· DISCUSSING AUTHORS. Don’t discuss your authors by their names in the text, except as citations. You need to state ideas and just cite last names and years. Don’t talk about them as people-refer to them solely as sources of information.

· MISSING COMMA. Some of your sources are missing a comma before the year.

· ET Al. You have some et al. errors. Don’t i

To write Policy Brief (3-4 pages)

What is a policy brief?

A policy brief is a concisely written document of 2-4 pages that summarizes current and relevant research to explain the implications of this research for policy creation and implementation. The policy implication of any research is what policy-makers tend to be most interested in: how what you know will bring about change! Therefore, policy briefs are often used to guide decisions by presenting alternative policy approaches. They must be brief, to the point, factual, and engaging enough to catch the attention of policy makers.

A well-written policy brief will provide adequate context and background to the issue, being mindful of not overwhelming the audience with too much detail. Further, the brief should be based on either peer reviewed and/or publicly accessible analysis.

Your policy brief should be 3-4 pages long. The brief can include professional (but not cluttered) graphics and fonts, as well as concise graphs, charts, tables, or case studies to illustrate your points. These can be done as sidebars or cutouts in the document. 

(Important information to be included in the policy brief on MRSA)

Currently the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spread is trending overtime and there is no standardized national infection control policy to mandate the requirements for interventions to reduce the spread of the MRSA in the community and among hospital patients). CDC and other public health agencies put guidelines and recommendation, yet there are no standard requirements to mandate hospitals and other clinical services to enforce those guidelines. Many other public health issues have been taking more attentions of our legislators than the MRSA even though the MRSA morbidity and cost liability is much higher that those less morbidity and less cost impact issues.

Example of required policy intervention:

· Antibiotic monitoring usage policies to eliminate the misuse of the antibiotic, which is leading to developing the multidrug resistant

· MRSA spread Can Be eliminated or reduced by Stricter Infection Control policies

· Policies to requiring patient’s MRSA Screening

· Mandate series penalties on hospitals that fails to enforce national policies

Policy Brief (3-4 pages)

Title: The urgent need for a national effective infection control strategy to stop the epidemic spread of MRSA.

Executive Summary: This is a 1-2 paragraph summary that aims to convince the reader to actually read the rest of the document. This is similar to an abstract. It is especially important that you can quickly and concisely share the relevance and importance of your brief. You should include a description of the problem, a statement on why the current approach/policy option needs to be