• Type of paper Other
     
  • Subject Nursing
     
  • Number of pages 10
     
  • Format of citation APA
     
  • Number of cited resources  0
     
  • Type of service  Rewriting
     

attached is:  methodology potion of this project; which is what the basis is for this.  putting the paper together is the rubric. there are 2 sample papers  which were provided by professor, which we need to adhere to and not  deviate. uploaded the portion of my paper dated 10-17-17 (which is in  process right now of being rewritten, but on page 4, per my professor,  it should be added into this portion, ie the review of literature  portion of assignment. this portion is review of literature for resarch,  which is the paper which needs to be rewritten. professors handwritten  notes are on paper; and another portion of paper needs to be  incorporated into review of lit, as mnetioned above.this is only the  review of literature portion:Section II – Review of Literature &  Theoretical Framework Introductory Paragraph Review of Literature (all that needs to be revised for this portion). I  have also added 5 more articles as i felt it was more relevant to my  main question for this project: what is the knowledge and towards  gardasil vaccination among parents for their children.  pls let me know if you have any questions. straighfwd.

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access

Association between parent attitudes and
receipt of human papillomavirus vaccine in
adolescents
Jeffrey J. VanWormer1*, Casper G. Bendixsen1, Elizabeth R. Vickers1, Shannon Stokley2, Michael M. McNeil2,
Julianne Gee2, Edward A. Belongia1 and Huong Q. McLean1

Abstract

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage rates remain low. This is believed to reflect parental
hesitancy, but few studies have examined how changes in parents’ attitudes impact HPV vaccine uptake. This study
examined the association between changes in parents’ vaccine attitudes and HPV vaccine receipt in their
adolescent children.

Methods: A baseline and 1-year follow-up survey of HPV vaccine attitudes was administered to parents of
11–17 year olds who had not completed the HPV vaccine series. Changes in attitudinal scores (barriers, harms,
ineffectiveness, and uncertainties) from the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale were assessed.
Two outcomes were measured (in parents’ adolescent children) over an 18-month period and analyzed using
multivariable regression; receipt of next scheduled HPV vaccine dose and 3-dose series completion.

Results: There were 221 parents who completed the baseline survey (11% response rate) and 164 with available
follow-up data; 60% of their adolescent children received a next HPV vaccine dose and 38% completed the vaccine
series at follow-up. Decrease in parents’ uncertainties was a significant predictor of vaccine receipt, with each
1-point reduction in uncertainties score associated with 4.9 higher odds of receipt of the next vaccine dose. Higher
baseline harms score was the only significant predictor of lower series completion.

Conclusions: Reductions in parents’ uncertainties appeared to result in greater likelihood of their children receiving
the HPV vaccine. Only baseline concerns about vaccine harms were associated with lower series completion rate.
Education for parents should emphasize the HPV vaccine’s safety profile.

Keywords: Human, Papillomavirus vaccines, Parents

Background
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was introduced
in 2006, but coverage has remained lower than for other
recommended adolescent vaccines for tetanus, diphtheria,
pertussis (Tdap), and meningococcal disease [1]. HPV
vaccine series completion, which included three doses in
2015, was recently estimated at 35% in the U.S. Factors
contributing to low population-level HPV vaccine cover-
age are not well understood. Parents are generally aware
of the HPV vaccine [2], but specific knowledge about

HPV vaccination (e.g., schedule, benefits) is weakly corre-
lated with actual coverage [3]. While multiple causes likely
exist, low coverage is hypothesized to be a function of
hesitancies, ambivalence, or resistance by many parents
who are deciding about their child’s healthcare. In
considering their adoles

A National Study of HPV Vaccination of Adolescent Girls:
Rates, Predictors, and Reasons for Non-Vaccination

Laura M. Kester • Gregory D. Zimet •

J. Dennis Fortenberry • Jessica A. Kahn •

Marcia L. Shew

Published online: 23 June 2012

� Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Abstract Despite recommendations in the U.S. for routine

HPV vaccination of adolescent girls since 2006, rates of

vaccination continue to be low. This study reports vacci-

nation uptake, factors associated with vaccine uptake and

reasons for non-vaccination within a national sample of

adolescent females during 2010. Using a computer admin-

istered survey of a national sample of 501 mothers of

daughters 14–17 years old we assessed maternal reports of

HPV vaccination as well as socio-demographical factors,

maternal HPV exposures and reasons chosen for non-

vaccination. Reported HPV vaccination rates were slightly

over 50 % (51.1 %), with 38.3 % reporting completion of

all 3 doses. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were

not associated with vaccination initiation; however, Blacks

and Hispanics were less likely to complete vaccination. The

most common reasons for non-vaccination were concerns

about vaccine safety, danger to daughter, and provider non-

recommendation. Relatively poor HPV vaccine initiation

and only modest 3-dose completion continues to be a major

public health concern that requires continued efforts to

address identified predictors and reasons for non-vaccination.

Keywords HPV � Vaccination rates � Adolescent health
behaviors � Sexually transmitted infections

Introduction

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination can lead to

substantial reductions in the incidence of HPV infection

and HPV-related diseases, including anogenital cancers

and genital warts [1]. The introduction and licensing of the

quadrivalent HPV vaccine in 2006 and the subsequent

licensing of the bivalent vaccine in 2008 created opportu-

nities to counter the existing HPV disease burden [1, 2].

Given the high rates of HPV infection that occur shortly

after the initiation of sex and the vaccine’s ability to pre-

vent infection only prior to exposure, HPV vaccination has

been particularly targeted to young adolescents [3, 4].

Routine vaccination with either the bivalent or quadrivalent

vaccine has been recommended by the Centers for Disease

Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Advisory Committee for

Immunization Practices (ACIP) for adolescent females

ages 11–12, with catch-up vaccination for young women

13–26 years of age. However, 4 years post vaccination

licensure, at least half of the target popu

B

C
r

P
a

b

c

A
R
R
A
A

K
H
H
A
C
N

1

c
i
8
h
[
r
a
c

a
a
a
t
r
f
p
t

M
O

0
h

Vaccine 31 (2013) 3121– 3125

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Vaccine

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / v a c c i n e

rief report

orrelates of HPV vaccination among adolescent females from Appalachia and
easons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate

aul L. Reiter a,b,c,∗, Mira L. Katz a,b,c, Electra D. Paskett a,b,c

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, United States
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, United States
College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, United States

a r t i c l e i n f o

rticle history:
eceived 14 February 2013
eceived in revised form 12 April 2013
ccepted 24 April 2013
vailable online 9 May 2013

a b s t r a c t

Limited research has examined HPV vaccination in Appalachia, a region with cervical cancer disparities.
We analyzed 2008–2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen data for adolescent females ages 13–17
from Appalachia (n = 1951) to identify correlates of HPV vaccination and reasons why their parents do
not intend to vaccinate. HPV vaccine initiation was 40.8%, completion was 27.7%, and follow-through
was 67.8%. Vaccination outcomes tended to be higher among females who were older, had visited their

eywords:
uman papillomavirus
PV vaccine
ppalachia
ancer
IS-Teen

healthcare provider in the last year, or whose parents reported receiving a provider recommendation
to vaccinate. Only 41.0% of parents with unvaccinated daughters intended to vaccinate in the next year.
The most common reasons for not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not
necessary (21.5%) and lack of knowledge (18.5%). Efforts to reduce missed opportunities for vaccination at
healthcare visits and address reasons why parents are not vaccinating may help increase HPV vaccination
in Appalachia

© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

. Introduction

Several populations in the U.S. continue to suffer from cervical
ancer disparities, including females from Appalachia. Appalachia
s a 13-state region (from New York to Mississippi) containing about
% of the U.S. population [1]. Parts of Appalachia have among the
ighest cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in the country
2,3]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers a strategy for
educing these disparities. Guidelines currently recommend that
ll females ages 11–12 receive three doses of HPV vaccine, with
atch-up vaccinat

Preventive Medicine 95 (2017) 26–37

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Preventive Medicine

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ypmed

Review Article

Factors associated with parents’ attitudes to the HPV vaccination of their
adolescent sons : A systematic review

Gorjana Radisic ⁎, Janine Chapman, Ingrid Flight, Carlene Wilson
Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, Flinders University, School of Medicine, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia
Cancer Council SA, 202 Greenhill Road, Eastwood, SA 5063, Australia

⁎ Corresponding author at: Flinders Centre for Innovati
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (G. R

(C. Wilson).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.019
0091-7435/© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

a b s t r a c t

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:
Received 15 March 2016
Received in revised form 15 November 2016
Accepted 24 November 2016
Available online 6 December 2016

Objective. The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) vac-
cine acceptability in parents of adolescent boys. This information is critical to the development of approaches to
optimise HPV vaccine uptake among this population group.

Methods. We performed a systematic search of the literature in addressing factors influencing parental atti-
tudes to and beliefs about HPV vaccine and its acceptability for use. The findings were organised within the
framework of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and summarised using a semi quantitative method.

Results. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Parental decisions were predominantly shaped by the per-
ceived benefits of the vaccine; perceived risk of sons contracting the HPV infection, and having recommendations
from health care providers. Fear of side effects and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness, as well as cost and
lack of healthcare, were barriers to HPV vaccination. Other factors such as knowledge, family characteristics, par-
ent–child dialogue and egalitarian values appeared to be important when deciding whether to vaccinate boys.

Conclusions. HPV vaccine uptake among male adolescents is suboptimal. Future programs need to address the
predictors of uptake by educating parents about the boys’ high susceptibility to infection, the benefits of vaccina-
tion, and reduce concerns regarding perceived barriers. Additionally, uptake may be facilitated by encouraging
health care provider endorsement, particularly in countries without government-funded immunisation
programs.

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
HPV vaccination
Health behaviour
Adolescent boys
Parental attitudes and beliefs

Contents

1. Int

B

C
r

P
a

b

c

A
R
R
A
A

K
H
H
A
C
N

1

c
i
8
h
[
r
a
c

a
a
a
t
r
f
p
t

M
O

0
h

Vaccine 31 (2013) 3121– 3125

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Vaccine

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / v a c c i n e

rief report

orrelates of HPV vaccination among adolescent females from Appalachia and
easons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate

aul L. Reiter a,b,c,∗, Mira L. Katz a,b,c, Electra D. Paskett a,b,c

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, United States
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, United States
College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, United States

a r t i c l e i n f o

rticle history:
eceived 14 February 2013
eceived in revised form 12 April 2013
ccepted 24 April 2013
vailable online 9 May 2013

a b s t r a c t

Limited research has examined HPV vaccination in Appalachia, a region with cervical cancer disparities.
We analyzed 2008–2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen data for adolescent females ages 13–17
from Appalachia (n = 1951) to identify correlates of HPV vaccination and reasons why their parents do
not intend to vaccinate. HPV vaccine initiation was 40.8%, completion was 27.7%, and follow-through
was 67.8%. Vaccination outcomes tended to be higher among females who were older, had visited their

eywords:
uman papillomavirus
PV vaccine
ppalachia
ancer
IS-Teen

healthcare provider in the last year, or whose parents reported receiving a provider recommendation
to vaccinate. Only 41.0% of parents with unvaccinated daughters intended to vaccinate in the next year.
The most common reasons for not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not
necessary (21.5%) and lack of knowledge (18.5%). Efforts to reduce missed opportunities for vaccination at
healthcare visits and address reasons why parents are not vaccinating may help increase HPV vaccination
in Appalachia

© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

. Introduction

Several populations in the U.S. continue to suffer from cervical
ancer disparities, including females from Appalachia. Appalachia
s a 13-state region (from New York to Mississippi) containing about
% of the U.S. population [1]. Parts of Appalachia have among the
ighest cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in the country
2,3]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers a strategy for
educing these disparities. Guidelines currently recommend that
ll females ages 11–12 receive three doses of HPV vaccine, with
atch-up vaccinat

Putting Your Paper Together

Section I – Introduction

Overview of Problem

Problem Statement

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions, Objectives or Hypothesis

Definition of Terms

Assumptions

Limitations

Significance

Summary Paragraph and Transition to Section II

Section II – Review of Literature & Theoretical Framework

Introductory Paragraph

Review of Literature

Theoretical Framework

Summary Paragraph with Transition to Section III

Section III – Methodology

Introductory Paragraph

Research Design

Sampling Design

Protection of Subjects Rights


Consent Form & Procedures

Data Collection


Instrumentation


Procedures


Projected Data Analysis

Introduction – overview of procedures to be used – software package and handling of data


Descriptive Statistics

Identification of Levels of Significance


Inferential Statistics

Identification of Levels of Significance

Wrap-up the Proposal in a paragraph or two.

STOP HERE

Omit this

Section IV – Data Analysis


Analysis of Data


Discussion of Findings

Section V – Results and Conclusions

Include this

References

Appendices

Running head: METHODOLOGY 1

METHODOLOGY 5

Methodology Portion

Angela-Theresa C. Green

Dr Parrish

South University

NSG 6101 Nursing Research Methods

November 14, 2017

Research Proposal

Methodology

Research has been done on vaccinations and also imparticular the Gardasil vaccination over the years. Vaccinations are administrated all over the world for preventative measures such as for the prevention of cancer. The purpose of this study is to explorer the knowledge and attitudes of parents of middle school age. This researcher plans to determine if the attitudes and knowledge of parents impacts whether or not their children receive the Gardasil vaccination.

Research Design

The research being conducted will be a quantitative experimental study (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017). A questionnaire will be distributed, by a middle school faculty teacher. The questionnaire will be disseminated after the IRB is cleared by the school board and a presentation and teaching on what the project is regarding, then the questionnaire will be distributed by faculty to the parents of the middle school children. The middle school children are between the ages of 11-15years of age. The parents will have a time frame of one week to complete the short questionnaires’ and send the completed forms back with their child to the teacher. The completed forms will be picked up by this researcher to ascertain review the results. According to the schoolboard data obtained, there is over 700 middle school children attending this one site.

Sampling design

A nonprobability convenience sampling design will be utilized with this study in order to select the participants which was constructed to focus on the hypothesis or question: What is the Knowledge and Attitudes towards Gardasil Vaccination among Parents for Their Children? (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017) The participants are parents of children at one middle school within the state of Florida. The sample is a non-probability sample because the individuals involved in this study would have to be parents of the children at the middle school the questionnaires’ were distributed at. All participants will have an equal opportunity to participate in said study indicated. The sample will consist of 25 or more participants. The participants can be of any race, age or gender. Exclusion criteria for participating in this research study include if the parents do not have middle school aged children at this middle school which the questionnaires were distributed.

References
Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Nursing Research (8th e

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Scanned by CamScanner

Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1

Research Proposal: CHF Management & Readmission Reduction

South University

RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2

CHF Management & Reduction in Readmissions

Overview of Problem

Chronic disease is a serious and expensive public health problem worldwide (Gardetto,

2011). Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic disease that is rising in numbers rather than

decreasing and is the most common chronic disease leading to hospitalization in the United

States (U.S.) with subsequent high admission rates and cost (Graves, Ford, & Mooney, 2013).

CHF patients have other comorbidities, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),

dementia, renal failure, hypertension (HTN), and diabetes mellitus Type II (DM II) all

contributing to expensive cost for both patients and hospitals. With a rapidly aging population

and improved survival from acute cardiac events, approximately 5.8 million Americans are

living with CHF, with an estimated incidence of 660,000 new cases each year (Lloyd-Jones,

Adams, Brown, & et.al. 2010). The United States spends a surplus of 30 billion per year on CHF

(American Heart Association, 2013); this chronic disease primarily effects older populations, but

can occur at any age. Twenty-seven percent of patients who are hospitalized once with CHF are

typically readmitted within 30 days (Jenks, Williams, Coleman, 2009).

Problem Statement

An approach to reduce the strain of CHF symptoms in patients living with the disease is

to identify effective approaches for maintaining effective daily care and medication

administration, while promoting the concept of self-management. CHF readmission rates are a

major issue and concern in the rural community (Graves, Ford, & Mooney, 2013). Health care

providers have a duty to educate all individuals on ways to decrease the occurrence of CHF

exacerbations and promote a better quality of life. Lower numbers of health care options are

available to individuals living in rural areas (Graves, Ford, & Mooney, 2013). Illiteracy, low

RESEARCH PROPOSAL 3

income, low educational level, and unhealthy life style habits lead to and cause increases in CHF

exacerbations and hospitalizations. Research has shown that education post-discharge can

decrease the number of hospitalizations related to CHF. (Graves, Ford, & Mooney, 2013).

Illiteracy and low educational levels greatly affect adults. Self-management skill are needed to

prevent and self-manage CHF exacerbations. As future providers, it is import

Running head: SELF-MANAGEMENT 1

Self-Management Clinics for Type 2 Diabetes

South University

College of Nursing

SELF-MANAGEMENT 2

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the effects of using a three-part self-management

class focusing on healthy diets, physical activity, and medication management for those with

type 2 diabetes.

Background: The type 2 diabetes diagnosis rates are rapidly increasing in the United States.

The use of self-management techniques may be one way to help manage diabetes. A variety of

studies have been performed concluding there are positive effects with the use of self-

management that included: blood glucose monitoring, community self-management program

involvement, diet modification, and overall lifestyle modifications.

Methods: A descriptive survey will be used to examine patient data of those involved in the self-

management classes prior to the first class. The survey will include the patient’s goals and

objectives, visits to clinic, and clinical data such as: Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure,

height, weight, medications prescribed, cholesterol levels, and hemoglobin A1c. The same

survey will then be administered to examine the patient goals at 1 month, 3 month, 6 month, and

1 year markings to evaluate changes in goals and objectives, visits to clinic, and clinical data.

Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the data.

SELF-MANAGEMENT 3

Self-Management Clinic for Type 2 Diabetes

Section I – Introduction

Introduction

Diabetes, along with obesity, has become an epidemic within the United States. Nearly

26 million people are affected with some form of diabetes; an estimated 90% have type 2

diabetes (T2D) (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2013). With the fast growing number of

diabetics in the United States, it is increasingly necessary to develop self-management programs

and increase research to help manage the disease.

The use of self-management techniques may be one way to help manage diabetes.

Researchers have conducted a variety of studies to examine the use of self-management in Type

2 Diabetes. Techniques include: blood glucose monitoring, community self-management

program involvement, diet modification, and overall lifestyle modifications (Bartol, 2013; Jessee

& Rutledge, 2012; Lorig et al., 2009). A self-management clinic may help provide patients with

better education and reinforcement to help improve their live

B

C
r

P
a

b

c

A
R
R
A
A

K
H
H
A
C
N

1

c
i
8
h
[
r
a
c

a
a
a
t
r
f
p
t

M
O

0
h

Vaccine 31 (2013) 3121– 3125

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Vaccine

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / v a c c i n e

rief report

orrelates of HPV vaccination among adolescent females from Appalachia and
easons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate

aul L. Reiter a,b,c,∗, Mira L. Katz a,b,c, Electra D. Paskett a,b,c

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, United States
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, United States
College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, United States

a r t i c l e i n f o

rticle history:
eceived 14 February 2013
eceived in revised form 12 April 2013
ccepted 24 April 2013
vailable online 9 May 2013

a b s t r a c t

Limited research has examined HPV vaccination in Appalachia, a region with cervical cancer disparities.
We analyzed 2008–2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen data for adolescent females ages 13–17
from Appalachia (n = 1951) to identify correlates of HPV vaccination and reasons why their parents do
not intend to vaccinate. HPV vaccine initiation was 40.8%, completion was 27.7%, and follow-through
was 67.8%. Vaccination outcomes tended to be higher among females who were older, had visited their

eywords:
uman papillomavirus
PV vaccine
ppalachia
ancer
IS-Teen

healthcare provider in the last year, or whose parents reported receiving a provider recommendation
to vaccinate. Only 41.0% of parents with unvaccinated daughters intended to vaccinate in the next year.
The most common reasons for not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not
necessary (21.5%) and lack of knowledge (18.5%). Efforts to reduce missed opportunities for vaccination at
healthcare visits and address reasons why parents are not vaccinating may help increase HPV vaccination
in Appalachia

© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

. Introduction

Several populations in the U.S. continue to suffer from cervical
ancer disparities, including females from Appalachia. Appalachia
s a 13-state region (from New York to Mississippi) containing about
% of the U.S. population [1]. Parts of Appalachia have among the
ighest cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in the country
2,3]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers a strategy for
educing these disparities. Guidelines currently recommend that
ll females ages 11–12 receive three doses of HPV vaccine, with
atch-up vaccinat

Preventive Medicine 95 (2017) 26–37

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Preventive Medicine

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ypmed

Review Article

Factors associated with parents’ attitudes to the HPV vaccination of their
adolescent sons : A systematic review

Gorjana Radisic ⁎, Janine Chapman, Ingrid Flight, Carlene Wilson
Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, Flinders University, School of Medicine, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia
Cancer Council SA, 202 Greenhill Road, Eastwood, SA 5063, Australia

⁎ Corresponding author at: Flinders Centre for Innovati
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (G. R

(C. Wilson).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.019
0091-7435/© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

a b s t r a c t

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:
Received 15 March 2016
Received in revised form 15 November 2016
Accepted 24 November 2016
Available online 6 December 2016

Objective. The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) vac-
cine acceptability in parents of adolescent boys. This information is critical to the development of approaches to
optimise HPV vaccine uptake among this population group.

Methods.