Needs Assessment

 When you are engaged in program planning, a needs assessment helps to determine the actuality and details of a specific problem. It also addresses how the target population views the problem—which is critical since their perspective and motivation to change are essential for the success of the program.

In this week’s video, the necessity of appraising a community’s assets as well as its challenges is evident as Dr. Donna Shambley-Ebron and Dr. Rebecca Lee discuss needs assessments. What additional insights have you gleaned from the Learning Resources that you intend to apply to your program?

For this Discussion, you develop a framework for completing a needs assessment for your program. To do this effectively, it is essential to begin with the program and the population you have identified and then develop an appropriate approach for conducting a needs assessment. This also leads to consideration of the types of data needed and the data collection methods to be used.

To prepare:

  • Consider      aspects of your problem and population (breast cancer in African American women      in the USA) as you review the information on needs assessment presented in      the Learning Resources.
  • How      would you conduct a needs assessment? What considerations would influence      your decision making about this process?
  • What      would be the most efficient and effective methods for collecting data?      What challenges could be encountered?


By tomorrow Wednesday 12/19/18 2 pm, write a minimum of 550 words essay in APA format with at least 3 references from the list of required readings below. Include all headers as numbered below:

Post a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:

1) Discuss how you would conduct a needs assessment for your selected problem and the target population. Why is this approach appropriate for the problem you have identified? Support your response with evidence from the literature.


2) Describe your proposed data collection methods and evaluate any challenges you might encounter.

Required Readings

Assessment and Planning in Health Programs

Chapter 1, “Assessment for Developing Programs and Interventions: The Big Picture”

Chapter 1 notes the importance of looking not just at needs but also the assets associated with the target population and environment; that is, assessing what needs to be addressed given the assets that are present.

Chapter 3, “Data Collection Strategies for Needs Assessments and Evaluations”

In Chapter 3, the authors examine data collection, a key element of needs assessments. They also indicate that it is wise to plan ahead and consider data collection strategies for evaluation at the same time.

Kettner, P. M., Moroney, R. M., & Martin, L. L. (2017). Designing and managing programs: An effectiveness-based approach (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chapter 4, “Needs Assessment: Theoretical Considerations”

Chapter 5, “Needs Assessment: Approaches to Measurement”

These two chapters provide foundational information as well as guidance for conducting a needs assessment as part of program planning.

Burrows, T., Hutchesson, M., Chai, L,K., Rollow, M., Skinner, G., & Collins, C. (2015). Nutrition interventions for prevention and management of childhood obesity: What do parents want from an eHealth program? Nutrients, 7, 10469–10479 doi:10.3390/nu7125546

Derguy, C., Michel, G., M’Bailara, K., Roux, S., & Bouvard, M. (2015). Assessing needs in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: A crucial preliminary step to target relevant issues for support programs. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 40(2), 156–166

Millard, T., McDonald, K., Elliott, J., Slavin, S., Rowell, S., & Girdler, S. (2014). Informing the development of an online self-management program for men living with HIV: a needs assessment. BMC Public Health, 14, 1209 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1209

Springer, A. E. & Evans, A.E. (2016). Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners. Health Promotion Perspectives, 6(3), 111–118 doi: 10.15171/hpp.2016.19

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2011). Design and evaluation of programs and projects [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

“Needs Assessment” (featuring Dr. Rebecca Lee, Shiniche Thomas, and Dr. Donna Shambley-Ebron)

You may view this course video by clicking the link or on the course DVD, which contains the same content. Once you’ve opened the link, click on the appropriate media piece.

In this week’s videos, Dr. Rebecca Lee and Dr. Donna Shambley-Ebron discuss needs assessments. Then, Dr. Rebecca Lee demonstrates a windshield assessment along with Seven Hills community resident Shiniche Thomas.



Breast Cancer among African American Women in the United States

Student’s Name


Breast Cancer among African American Women in the United States

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in entire world, and in the United States it is one of the most leading causes of cancer death. Irrespective of the major improvements made in breast cancer detection, diagnosis as well as prevention, studies indicate that African American women are still disproportionately affected by breast cancer (The American Cancer Society, 2012). Compared with White women, Black American women have higher mortality rates and are highly likely to be diagnosed with the disease before the age of 40 years. Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates trends demonstrate varying patterns among different races. Whereas African American women have lower lifetime risk of suffering from breast cancer, they have a higher mortality rates than white American women (Allicock et al., 2013). The American Cancer Society (2012) found that White women have a 90 percent five-year survival white African Americans have a five-year survival rate of 78 percent, which is lower than that of other racial as well as ethnic groups in the United States. Some of the causes of the inequality include inequalities in wealth, education, overall standard of living, work, housing as well as education and barriers to quality cancer prevention, detection as well as treatment services (Leading Health Indicators, n.d.).

Impact of Breast Cancer on African American Women Patients

More than 50 percent of persons with cancer suffer from psychotic disorders, with anxiety and depressions being the most significant psychopathological comorbidities (Villar et al. 2017). At least 33 percent of persons with breast cancer can experience psychopathological disorders (Villar et al. 2017). Normally psychological morbidity is influenced by various concomitant as well as background factors that affect not only an individual’s quality of life, but also psychic functions. Davis et al. (2014) found associations between anxiety and some biopsychosocial predictors among African American women with cancer. The researchers indicated effects of anxiety, related high anxiety levels with intensification of physical symptoms as well as increase in the perception of adverse implications of treatments. Lewis et al. (2013), in their study found that all but one African American woman with cancer acknowledged the need for emotional a



Program Planning Theory



Program Planning Theory

Theory or Model and Justification

The selected theory for the Breast cancer problem among the African American women is social cognitive theory abbreviated as SCT. This theory focuses on the impact of individual experiences, the activities and actions of others coupled with the sorrrounding or environmental facts on the health status and behavior of the affected population. this is made under the consideration that breast cancer is treatable but can also be fatal if advanced. The theory avails opportunities to offer support in the social context by installing expectations of “self-efficacy and utilizing the observational learning among other reinforcements to achieve a change of behavior and perception” (Cronin, 2016). The theory utilizes several concepts or components which are related to individual behavior change; firstly there is self-efficacy which is the belief that a person has ultimate control over their health and they can do as they wish, behavioral capability such as regular checkups despite the financial status involving understanding the importance of focusing on personal health. Thirdly there are expectations which determine the outcomes of the behavior change, for example, regular checkups where a patient expects to keep their health in check and at the required standard (Cronin, 2016). Fourthly there is self-control which gives the patient autonomy and total control of their behavior change, and most importantly there is observational learning where the African American women can observe what the white women do to keep their 90% survival rates. Lastly, the model is enforced through reinforcements which include the provision of incentives such as free checkups and rewards for every African American that achieves regular visits to the hospital (Cronin, 2016).

The current problem lies between social determinants and hindrances which are perceived by African Americans more than white women such as poverty, inaccessible healthcare services, and education among others. SCT as a theoretical framework of program planning can be utilized in different settings and environments aligned with the demands of this problem (Cronin, 2016). Most importantly it is a critical model for understanding the influence of social determinants of health and persons past experiences on behavior change (Cronin, 2016). This model is chosen on the basis that white Americans achieve better health standard by overcoming the social determinants which are also possible with the African Americans.

SCT in Nursing and Other Fields<