LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF HEALTH CARE

You need to look at the previous three case assignments and SLP assignments to help with this final SLP assignment.

  1. Explore and outline what policy or employee education program you will propose to address the problems you identified in prior modules.
  2. As the Assistant Manager of a Home Health Agency, explain why the proposed policy and/or the employee education program are appropriate for addressing the problems.  

Length: 3-4 pages, excluding title page and references.

** ATTACHMENTS THAT REFERENCE FROM THE PREVIOUS THREE CASES AND SLP

Running Head: PUBLIC HEALTH, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND HEALTH STATISTICS

PUBLIC HEALTH, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND HEALTH STATISTICS
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Public Health, Epidemiology, and Health Statistics

Jaydin Davis

Trident at American InterContinental University

Module 1 Case: BHS499 Senior Capstone Project

Dr. Robert Grice

December 16, 2020

Introduction to TB Epidemiology

One of the world’s most prevalent diseases is TB infection. An approximate 2 billion people have M. Tuberculosis. Around 10 million people are living with TB each year, and 1.6 million die from TB annually. TB is probably the world’s greatest cause of death because of infectivity (World Health Organization, 2017). In the U.S., doctors and other health care providers are constitutionally obliged to disclose tuberculosis reports to their state or municipal health departments. For tuberculosis surveillance, monitoring is critical. If the health department is aware of a new TB occurrence, action should be taken to ensure the individual gets proper attention and care.

The health department can also launch a contact inquiry. This ensures that a person with TB disease is interviewed first to decide who is otherwise vulnerable to TB. Those exposed to TB would eventually be screened for TB and tuberculosis. The fifty states, the Districts of Puerto Rico Columbia, New York City, and seven other counties report the TB cases to CDC using the regular case reporting mechanism called the Checked Case TB report. The report is a case reporting mechanism (RVCT) (World Health Organization, 2017). To ensure it satisfies certain requirements, any confirmed case of TB is reviewed. Each year are all cases that satisfy the requirements.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Data track

CDC uses this data to track the developments for national TB, identify the critical needs, and prepare the annual reporting report. In 1953 there were far more than 84,000 cases in the United States when national TB records first began. The number of cases of TB declined by an average of 6% annually from 1953 to 1984. The number of tuberculosis cases dropped by 22,201 in 1985. However, in 1986 TB cases were increased, the first considerable increase since 1953. From 1985 to 1992, the number of new cases increased from 22,201 in 1985 to 26,673 in 1992, a rise of about 20% (Figure 2.1).

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Figure 2.1

Factors that contribute to global resurgence of TB

At least five causes can be attributed to the increase in TB cases between 1985 and 1992:

· Insufficient support for TB regulation and other initiatives in public health

· HIV Patients  

· High levels of immigration from TB-type countries

· TB diffusion in certain configurations (for example,  homeless shelters  and correctional facilities)

·

Running Head: HEALTH BEHAVIOR, COMMUNICATION AND ADVOCACY
1

HEALTH BEHAVIOR, COMMUNICATION AND ADVOCACY
7

Health Behavior, Communication, and Advocacy

Jaydin Davis

Trident at American InterContinental University

Module 2 Case: BHS499 Senior Capstone Project

Dr. Robert Grice

December 22, 2020

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis one of the bacteria-related infectious diseases. The tuberculosis bacteria are called mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lifestyle of the patient triggers the disorder. Tuberculosis affects the lungs and kills a lot worldwide. Tuberculosis is stated to have the highest prevalence in most countries. Tuberculosis is one of the deadliest, affecting both gender and reproductive women in most cases (OCPHS1, 2014). When the illness attacks a victim, a lot of money is spent on medical treatment, which is a burden for the person and the family. The use of air spreads tuberculosis amongst individuals. Therefore, it is transferred by air. If you have tuberculosis and, in a crowd, you can pass the disease to others during the meeting. In most cases, the risk of infection by the disease is greater within children.

Relevant Health Behaviors Contributing to TB

Many health-related habits, such as the use of drugs, cause tuberculosis. For many people globally, drugs are very vulnerable, for instance, a smoker, to tuberculosis (OCPHS1, 2014). For a human to smoke is risky. Tobacco smokers expose you to aeronautical problems, which increase the likelihood of TB. Smoking can affect the spleen and lungs, resulting in tuberculosis infections due to too much smoking. Many signs and symptoms suggest the infection has infected a person. These causes include constant cough, sweating at night, nausea, frostbite, and even upset stomach. Heart pains can also be another of the disease’s primary symptoms. A person’s smoking activity should be discouraged because this adds to contamination with the disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017).

Another behavioral aspect that triggers tuberculosis in a person is attending social places, which are crowded. This is how many people can meet at social venues, such as meetings or movies. Because the disease is infectious, a person can transmit it, and coughing can spread to other persons. In such a situation, a person may discourage huge crowds from attending to prevent them from becoming victims of the disease. Drug misuse is a significant contributor to tuberculosis risk.

The use of alcohol may also cause tuberculosis infection. Individuals who consume drugs such as alcohol often exchange drinks with their friends or even acquaintances, who pose a massive danger to their wellbeing (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). They may share the same with someone who has already been infected because he can quickly catch the disease because the diseas

HEALTH DELIVERY 1

HEALTH DELIVERY 5

Health Delivery and Cross-Cultural Health Perspectives

Jaydin Davis

Trident at American InterContinental University

Module 3 Case: BHS499 Senior Capstone Project

Dr. Robert Grice

January 7, 2021

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat with a third of the world population either infected or exposed to the disease. TB is an infectious and contagious disease that is caused by a bacterium referred to as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (CDC, n.d.). The bacterium is known to attack the lungs and will at times attack other parts of the body like the liver, kidney, spine, and brain. It is highly infectious as it is transmitted from airborne particles called droplet nuclei. When a healthy person breathes these droplets they become infected. The prevention of TB is through masks and vaccines whereby people with active TB are identified and cured. Curing is through antibiotics provided which will make them less infectious to others. The use of masks is part of infection control where they are used to limit transmission of TB. The current scenario will provide preventive measures for TB.

How could have the organization prevented the likelihood of Sara and her co-worker contracting the disease?

TB is a highly infectious disease with the CDC (n.d.) stating that the disease is carried through airborne particles called droplet nuclei. The droplets are usually generated when an infected person will cough, sneeze or shout and the infected droplets may stay in the air for several hours. The information from the CDC shows that the disease is airborne and in the workplace environment various precautionary measures can be taken to limit the spread. In the case of Sara and her co-worker, the organization could have taken various measures to limit the spread. These measures include ensuring the offices are well ventilated because adequate ventilation will lead to the removal of infectious droplet nuclei. The air circulation also plays an important role in the removal of the infectious droplet nuclei. The World Health Organization (2008) provided various measures that will help in the prevention of TB like detection of sources, contact tracing, infection control, and BCG vaccination. Among the measures provided by the WHO, infection control, detection of sources, and contact tracing would have prevented the likelihood of Sara and co-workers contracting the disease.

Role and responsibilities of the organization in providing safety to workers

The organization’s management, operations, and staff all play an important role in ensuring a safe work environment. This shows that everyone in the organization has a role to play when it comes to health and safety at

Running Head: THE HISTORY OF TUBERCULOSIS (TB)

THE HISTORY OF TUBERCULOSIS (TB)

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The History of Tuberculosis (TB)

Jaydin Davis

Trident at American InterContinental University

Module 1 SLP: BHS499 Senior Capstone Project

Dr. Robert Grice

December 17, 2020

The History of Tuberculosis (TB)

1989 saw the goal of reducing the rate of United States’ tuberculosis by 2010 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was introduced. The United States released a plan for the elimination of TB in 1989 and reassessed this strategy in 1999 intending to define the steps required for the elimination of TB (Stewart, 2018). The TB revival happened towards the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s derailed this target. The following aspects contributed to this revival:

· The initiation of the outbreak of HIV;

· High levels of immigration in countries in which tuberculosis has indeed been common;

· TB in collective situations; and transmission;

· Multi-resistant (MDR) TB growth.

These factors occurred when, over decades of funding cuts, TB control, and other efforts in public health were inadequately supported and the TB control program was deteriorating. As a result, TB control officers in the federal, state, and local governments had very little resources for TB control. The United States subsequently renewed its TB control commitment in the 1990s and mobilized new resources (Stewart, 2018). In 1993, the rising trend in new TB cases has been reversed, while the number of new TB cases has been declining until 2011. This is due to the increased funds and resources that TB programs have been able to strengthen their controls to:

· Identify citizens with tuberculosis promptly;

· Begin proper care for TB patients; and Ensure full care for patients. Since the pace for TB disease has been unparalleled, TB removal faces several major obstacles.

· TB disease in populations at high risk where identification, diagnosis, and treatment is difficult;

· The global epidemic of TB continues and grows;

· Present monitoring mechanisms restrictions and experimental experiments and therapies including successful vaccines.

Resurgence and Data of tuberculosis Trend since 1980s

In the mid-1980s, the resurgence of TB disease was characterized by years of rising cases before its peak in 1992. Counts of cases started to drop in 1993 and 2011 the cumulative number of cases of TB registered in the USA since the largest re-emergence was 19 years downwards (Figure 1.1). The number of TB cases decreased by 5 – 7% per year between 1993 and 2002. Though from 2003 to 2008 the rates tended to decrease, it was slightly slower (Shrestha and Hill, 2017). In 2009 however, the overall number of TB cases was down over 10% between 2008 and 2009, with the dec

Running Head: HEALTH BEHAVIOR, COMMUNICATION, AND ADVOCACY

HEALTH BEHAVIOR, COMMUNICATION, AND ADVOCACY
7

Health Behavior, Communication, and Advocacy

Jaydin Davis

Trident at American InterContinental University

Module 2 SLP: BHS499 Senior Capstone Project

Dr. Robert Grice

December 22, 2020

Health Behavior, Communication, and Advocacy

Human Resource (HR) IN Healthcare Safety

The safety and health of employees are crucially affected by human resources (HR). Most HR departments do not only facilitate the well-being of each part of an employee. In this situation, administrators should use all the tools available to establish and enforce protection and health practices in an organization. Based on Sara, an open discussion, coordination of facility management, and health and safety training should be developed by the HR Department to ensure that all stakeholders know about the outbreak of tuberculosis (TB). Not only are they life-threatening, but they can also limit productivity on the ground (Adu, 2018). The most significant disadvantage for every organization will be the loss of dangerous and healthy staff during their working hours. Managers should use their tools to define and sustain corporate health and safety practices. Here are HR techniques to promote and maintain the well-being and safety of employees;

Establish Open Communication

The promotion of open communication on all health or safety associated incidents is a crucial aspect of maintaining workers’ morale. When expressing concern over company safety targets, no employee should be scared. An HR staff must meet personally with the workers to help them feel more secure communicating to an HR staff if they fear sharing safety issues with direct bosses.

Implement a strict safety policy

Workers who are not authorized to work in a high-risk role should be prohibited from visiting dangerous environments. The applicants would know if they are eligible for such positions by marking insecure conditions, posting stern warning signs, and listing credentials appropriate for such employment in workplaces. For a company office with less physical hazards, any possible risks, such as broken glass or another form of leakages, should be detected early.

Provide health and safety training

It is important to provide all workers with required safety awareness programs to handle themselves while wounded and isolated. It is necessary to provide emergency response plan training. Ensure the staff is useful in the case of disaster by carrying out fire and rescue drills occasionally. Encourage staff who are ill and have leaves without reprimand to be responsible. An organization can recognize all possible risks by applying safety standards to keep workers safe and stable when on the field (Rieger, 2018)

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY 1

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY 4

Health Care Delivery

Jaydin Davis

Trident at American InterContinental University

Module 3 SLP: BHS499 Senior Capstone Project

January 7, 2021

Introduction

The various steps of research are important in gathering relevant information about the worker. This information is important as it will be used in ascertaining the magnitude of the situation at hand. However, as data is collected from the employees at the organization, confidentiality is essential. Vaught and Grace (2000) emphasized employee confidentiality in occupational healthcare. This is why medical records should be stored in line with data protection legislation. The leader plays an important role in ensuring the privacy and confidentiality of the employee’s records. This is because the leader should be able to protect all the employees at the organization without discrimination.

Healthcare workers’ privacy and confidentiality in ensuring all workers are safe in the worksite

Privacy and confidentiality play an important role in health care. This is because privacy articulates who has the right to access personal information while confidentiality prevents medical professionals from disclosing the information that is shared by a patient. In a work setting, agencies are no allowed to share the personal information of an employee as it contravenes the privacy and confidentiality clause. Confidentiality is considered an ethical principle in health services. This is why it important not to disclose the private health information of the employee. Heikkinen et al., (2006) advised it is difficult to protect confidentiality in a workplace due to the ethical challenges raised. These ethical challenges include the obligation of the entire workforce coinciding with the obligation of protecting one employee. However, there are various arguments for the disclosure of a patient’s information which are in line with the ethical challenges mentioned. In Sara’s scenario, the information was divulged due to the nature of the condition which is highly contagious. It can be considered that the information was divulged to ensure the safety of all the workers on the site.

The role of the manager versus a leader in this scenario and how this situation should be handled

The manager and the leader play different roles when handling the crisis in the organization. Whereas the leader is supposed to be in control of the situation by taking responsibility and advising others, managers are known to play politics and assign blame. According to Fener and Cevik (2015), the current leader will make a scenario analysis and work with the team to gather different viewpoin