Health Promotion and Wellness.

Cultural Diversity.

Environmental Health.

Read chapter 4, 13 & 14 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentations.  Once done, answer the following questions;

  1. Discuss various theories of health promotion, including Pender’s Health Promotion Model, the Health Belief Model, the Transtheoretical Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action.
  2. Discuss definitions of health.
  3. Critically analyze racial and cultural diversity in the United States.
  4. Describe the importance of air, water and food quality as a determinant of health.

As stated in the class syllabus please present your assignment in an APA format, word document, Arial 12 font attached to the forum in the discussion board tab of the blackboard title “week 4 discussion questions”.  The assignment must include at least 2 evidence-based references (excluding the class textbook).  Two replies to any of your peers sustained with the proper references are required.  A minimum of 700 words is required.  

Chapter 4

Health Promotion and Risk Reduction

.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Health Promotion Is…

…any combination of health education and related organizational, economic, and environmental supports for behavior of individuals, groups, or communities conducive to health (Green & Kreuter, 1991)

…that which is motivated by the desire to increase well-being and to reach the best possible health potential (Parse, 1990)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2

Health Protection Is …(Cont.)

… those behaviors in which one engages with the specific intent to prevent disease, detect disease in the early stages, or maximize health within the constraints of disease (Parse, 1990)

… an important step in maintaining health

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Defining Health

The way health is defined has shifted from a focus on the curative model, to a focus on multidimensional aspects such as the social, cultural, and environmental facets of life and health (Benson, 1996)

Health is viewed not only as an important goal, but as a resource for living (WHO, 1986)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Healthy People 2020 …

… is the health promotion initiative for the nation.

… challenges individuals, communities, and professionals … to take specific steps to ensure that good health, as well as long life, are enjoyed by all.

– U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, 2012

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Healthy People 2020 …
(Cont.)

Broad goals

Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.

Achieve high equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.

Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.

Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Determinants of Health

Biology

Behaviors

Social environment

Physical environment

Policies and interventions

Access to high-quality health care

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Chapter 13

Cultural Diversity and Community Health Nursing

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

1

Cultural Competence

Cultural competence is respecting and understanding the values and beliefs of a certain cultural group so that one can function effectively in caring for members of that cultural group.

Culturally competent community health nursing requires that the nurse understand…

Lifestyle

Value system

Health and illness behaviors of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2

Standards of Practice for Culturally Competent Nursing Care

Social Justice

Critical Reflection

Knowledge of Cultures

Culturally Competent Practice

Cultural Competence in Health Care Systems and Organizations

Patient Advocacy and Empowerment

Multicultural Workforce

Education and Training in Culturally Competent Care

Cross-Cultural Communication

Cross-Cultural Leadership

Policy Development

Evidence-Based Practice and Research

From: Expert Panel on Global

Nursing and Health (2010)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3

Population Trends

In 1970

Minority groups were 16% of population

By 2010

Minority groups increased to 36% of population

By 2025

More than half of all children will be minorities

By 2050

More than 54% of total population will be minorities

First time in U.S. history that minorities will make up a majority of the population

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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4

Population Trends (Cont.)

By 2060, projected demographic trends:

White 44%

Hispanic 30%

African American 15%

Asian 9%

American Indians & Alaska Natives 2%

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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5

Immigration to the United States

Since 1991, more than 13 million legal immigrants

In 2010, almost 40 million foreign-born individuals in the United States (12.9% of population) from:

Latin America 53.1%

Asia 28.2%

Europe 12.1%

Other regions 9%

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Diversity Among Nurses

Minorities are generally underrepresented by nursing workforce (HRSA, 2009):

Chapter 14

Environmental Health

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Environmental Health Is …

… all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person and all the related factors impacting behaviors.

… encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health.

… targeted toward preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments.

– WHO (2013)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2

Environmental Health

The purpose of environmental health is to ensure the conditions of human health and provide healthy environments for people to live, work, and play.

Accomplished through…

Risk assessment

Prevention

Intervention

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Using a Critical Theory Approach

Uses “thinking upstream” framework.

Raises questions about oppressive situations.

Involves community members in the definition and solution of problems.

Facilitates interventions that reduce health-damaging effects of environments.

Asks critical questions about clients’ work and home environments to help discern the contributions of specific hazards to health.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Benefits of an Environmental Health History

Increased awareness of environmental/ occupational factors

Improved timelines and accuracy of diagnosis

Prevents disease and aggravation of conditions

Identifies potential work-related environmental hazards and/or environmental hazards in and around clients’ homes

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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I PREPARE
Environmental Exposure History

I – Investigate potential exposures

P – Present work

R – Residence

E – Environmental concerns

P – Past work

A – Activities

R – Referrals and Resources

E – Educate

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Figure 14-1

From U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Healthy People 2010, ed 2, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Areas of Environmental Health

Built environment

Wo