After studying Module 2. discuss the following:

  • Describe and discuss the nurse’s role in health promotion and disease prevention in older adults. Share an example from your personal experience as a RN.
  • Name and elaborate on at least three screening/preventive procedure that must be done in older adults.
  • Define and discuss three common End-of-life documents that you as nurse must be familiar with to be able to educate older adults.

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. 

Chapter 8

Health Promotion and Illness/Disability Prevention

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Health promotion: the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimum health

Primary prevention: seeking out services and education in order to prevent disease

Secondary prevention: detecting early disease and seeking care before the disease progresses or symptoms become apparent

Terminology (1 of 2)

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Tertiary prevention: the care of established disease; attempts to restore the person to their highest function, minimize the negative effects of disease, and prevent disease-related complications

Quaternary prevention: limiting disability while maintaining functional ability or reducing loss of function through adaptation

Terminology (2 of 2)

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Transtheoretical model—progression through 6 stages of behavioral changes—precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination

Health belief model—determines certain behaviors that attributed to and prevented participation in preventive measures

Health promotion model—presumes an active role by the participant in developing and deciding the context in which health behaviors will be modified

Models of Health Promotion

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Patient barriers unrelated to health beliefs include: lack of transportation, financial limitations, lack of insurance coverage, lack of availability, language barriers, and health illiteracy

Older Adults’ Barriers to
Health Promotion

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Primary preventive measures

Yearly well visits

Immunizations

Smoking cessation

Alcohol consumption

Polypharmacy

Bone health

Disease Prevention (1 of 2)

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Secondary preventive measures

Annual screening recommendations for older adults should be made on an individual basis with the use of the guidelines and evidence-based recommendations from USPSTF.

Tertiary preventive measures

Aims to prevent or reduce long-term effects of a disease by helping patients manage their conditions and chronic symptoms such as-stroke, cardiopulmonary disease, chronic pain, and cancers

Disease Prevention (2 of 2)

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Wh

Chapter 6

Family Influences

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Families play a significant role in the lives of most older persons.

85% of all senior citizens will need in-home assistance at some point in their lives.

78% of in-home care is provided by unpaid family members and friends.

Most of the care for the older adult is provided in the home environment.

Role and Function of Families

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Demographic and Social Trends That Affect Family Support

Increasing aging population

Living arrangements

Disability and activity

Decrease in birth rate

Increase in employment of women

Mobility of families

Increase in number of blended families

Older adult providing as well as receiving support

State of the senior housing industry

Caregiver workplace issues

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Common Late-life Family
Issues and Decisions

Most common issues and difficult decisions families face include:

Changes in living arrangements

Nursing facility placement

Financial and legal concerns

End-of-life health care decisions

Vehicle driving issues

Family caregiving

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Family members struggle with allowing a person to be as independent as possible and creating a more secure environment.

Older person views loss of independence as “being closer to the grave.”

As long as they have the mental capacity to make decisions, they cannot be forced to accept help.

If an older adult is resistant to accepting other living arrangements, nurses can help families ask crucial questions and use the answers to guide the older adult to accepting a safer alternative.

Changes in Living Arrangements

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They are more options available than long-term care facilities including assisted living and continuing care retirement community.

The decision to move an older family member into any type of care facility is difficult.

Decision is filled with guilt, sadness, anxiety, doubt, and anger—even when the older person makes the decision.

Talk with family members about the potential benefits of a care facility.

Care Facility Placement

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Paying for long-term care

Nurses should know about the community resources that are available and the eligibility requiremen

Chapter 5

Cultural Influences

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It is projected that by 2044 those persons from groups that have long been counted as statistical minorities will become the emerging majority.

Immigrant population is growing at a faster rate than that of the native born.

Senior communities and health care facilities will need to advance their cultural competence.

It is likely that many of these older adults will not speak the same language as the nurse.

Diversity of the Older Adult
Population in the United States

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Nurses are challenged to gain new awareness, knowledge, and skills to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care.

Culturally compassionate care reduces health disparities.

Culturally appropriate care begins with an increasing awareness of our own beliefs and attitudes.

Conduct a cultural self-assessment

Culturally Sensitive
Gerontologic Nursing Care

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Cultural Concepts

Culture

Enculturation

Values

Acculturation

Race

Ethnicity and ethnic identity

Ethnocentrism

Racism

Cultural conflict

4

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Are grounded in culture and influenced by past experience

Magico-religious theory

Health, illness, and effectiveness of treatment are believed to be caused by the actions of a higher power.

Health is viewed as a blessing or a reward, and illness is viewed as a punishment.

Treatments may involve religious practices such as praying, meditating, fasting, wearing amulets, burning candles, or establishing family altars.

Beliefs About Health and Illness

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The right amount of exercise, food, sleep, evacuation, interpersonal relationships, or geophysical and metaphysical forces in the universe

Disturbances balance results in disharmony and subsequent illness.

Interventions aim at restoring balance.

Yin/yang theory

Hot/cold theory

Balance and Harmony

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The body is viewed as a functioning machine.

Health is a state of optimum functioning along with the absence of microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses.

Treatment is directed at repair or removal of the damaged part or administration of drugs to kill or retard the growth of the causative organism.

The Biomedical or Western Perspective

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Chapter 7

Socioeconomic and Environmental Influences

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Social status, economic conditions, and environment influence our health and our response to illness.

One of the strongest and most consistent predictors of illness and death is socioeconomic status.

The environment influences safety and well-being.

Introduction

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The GI Generation commonly called the “Greatest Generation”—born 1900 to 1924

The Silent Generation—born 1925 to 1945

The Baby Boomers—born 1946 to 1964

They shared certain experiences at similar stages of physical, psychological, and social development that influenced the way they perceive the world.

Age Cohorts

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They are healthy and have resources to maintain their homes.

They have contributed to Social Security more than any other age group because of their higher earnings.

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Older adults receive income from five sources: Social Security, assets, retirement, government pensions, and wages.

The age at which Social Security can be drawn is increasing from age 65 to 67; the retirement benefit can slightly increase for those who delay payment.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits are available for the aged, disabled, or slightly impaired and those with few assets and minimal income.

Income Sources

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In peak earning years

Most married

Few have children younger than 18 still residing in the family home.

53% are still employed.

Have completely or nearly paid for homes

Average annual income is more than $49,608.

Cohort 55–64 Years

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Median income before taxes is $22,887.

Expenses related to medical care increase.

Face funeral expenses.

Veterans’ benefits are important to this age group because of the increased risk of chronic disease and other acute health problems.

Cohort 65–74 Years

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Women outnumber men.

Health problems increase with age as do expenses for prescriptions and assistive devices.

Quality of housing deteriorates.

Decreased strength and endurance reduce the ability to conduct household chores.

Cohort 75–84 Years

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Fastest growing segment of our population

At risk for an increa