After studying Module 5: Lecture Materials & Resources, discuss the following:

Based on viewing the Johnson & Johnson video, what are your thoughts about health care inequalities and the need for continuing reform? (Share at least 2 points of view.)

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. 

 Read and watch the lecture resources & materials below early in the week to help you respond to the discussion questions and to complete your assignment(s).

(Note: The citations below are provided for your research convenience. You should always cross reference the current APA guide for correct styling of citations and references in your academic work.)


  • Mason, D. J., Gardner, D. B., Outlaw, F. H. & O’Grady, E. T. (2020).
    • Chapters 40, 41, 44, and 53


  • Why Racial Disparities in healthcare make COVID-19’s impact worse for minorities (1:58)
    Johnson & Johnson. (2020, August 25). Why racial disparities in healthcare make COVID-19’s impact worse for minorities [Video]. 


Online Materials & Resources

Michael L. Jones, PhD, MBA, RN

The Social Determinants of COVID-19

Abstract: According to the Centers for Disease In a recent CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Control and Prevention ( CDC ), coronavirus disease of Report ( MMMR), cited by McLaughlin ( 2020), it was
2019, also known as COVID- 19, has become a major revealed that African Americans are especially impacted
health crisis of our time . Millions of individuals have by COVID – 19 . In a study conducted in New York City ,
been diagnosed with the disease , and hundreds of death rates among African Americans were 92 . 3 deaths
thousands have died of the disease . Although there is per 100 ,000 , compared to 74 . 3 deaths per 100 ,000 for
currently no vaccine to address this condition, there Hispanic/Latino Americans , 45 . 2 deaths per 100 ,000
are therapeutic options available to caregivers . Even for Whites , and 34 . 5 deaths for Asian – Americans .
so , the most efective defense against COVID- 19, Documentation of the disproportionate impact on African
according to the CDC , is prevention, and the primary Americans has been made nationwide and in similar
means of preventing COVID- 19 is through addressing studies (” CDC COVID data tracker,” 2020).
the social determinants of health ( SDOH ). Nurses are at Differences in health between racial groups , also
the forefront of addressing SDOH . The purpose ofthis known as health disparities . most often are closely related
article is to examine the effects of COVID- 19 and to link to financial and social conditions . The CDC explains ,
them to SDOH . “The conditions in which people live , work , and play

contribute to our health. These conditions, over time, lead
Key Words : Nursing , Community, Public, Prevention, to different levels of health risks , needs , and outcomes
Environment , Social Determinants of Health, SDOH , among some people in certain racial and ethnic minority
Coronavirus , COVID- 19 groups” (” Health equity considerations …,” 2020 ). In

many instances, this is further exacerbated in minority
groups compared to Whites. During emergencies in public
health, such as with COVID-19, groups such as African

According to the Centers for Disease Control Americans often lack the necessary resources to prepareand Prevention (CDC), coronavirus disease of and survive during a pandemic. Their ability to prepare2019, also known as COVID-19, is a highly for and respond to outbreaks such as COVID-19 is often
contagious virus that typically initially affects the compromised by factors include living conditions, work
upper respiratory tract. COVID-19 has become a major life, underlying health conditions, and access to care.
disease worldwide and has had a devastating impact on Social conditions and the environment are major drivers
populations globally. At the time of this article, there in the impact of COVID-19 on ethnic minorities. This
are approximately

Post #1

Roomending Joseph

St Thomas University


Professor Rousseau Rosa

July 28th, 2022


Health Care Inequalities

         Emerging data has revealed that the American Indians, Hispanic, African American, and Alaska Natives have experienced disproportionate illness and death rates due to COVID-19 (Azar et al., 2020). Further analysis also showed that such communities had more than thrice the number of immature deaths in the US in 2020 alone (Azar et al., 2020). These rates were more than three times those of Asians and whites. The higher infection and death rates among people of color may reflect the increased vulnerability or the risk of exposure from the working, living, and transport situations. Moreover, such communities also have higher rates of underlying conditions. They may experience barriers to testing and treatment due to the existing health care disparities, which increases their risk of developing more severe signs and symptoms.

          Studies have also shown that the direct effects of the virus are far-reaching as they may also take a toll on the mental health, well-being, and financial security of people of color (Lee et al., 2021). Other groups likely to be affected are the low-income individuals, the members of LQBTQ, among other underserved communities and groups. The financial insecurity comes from spending most of the household income on hospital bills which causes even more distress and may be of danger to an individual’s overall mental health. For instance, as of March 2021, a study was conducted among Hispanic and African American adults, specifically those directly affected by the virus or who had family members who had contracted the virus (Lee et al., 2021). The reports indicate that a significant proportion of them expressed their lack of confidence inability to meet the housing bills, rent, and some even reported to have experienced food insufficiency (Lee et al., 2021).

         The racial health care disparities have also manifested themselves in the vaccination process in the US. For instance, as of May 2021, Hispanic, Latinx, and African American communities were less likely than whites to have received the COVID-19 vaccine (Lee et al., 2021). Data across most states indicated a constant pattern of the Blacks, Latinx, and American Indian communities receiving an insignificant vaccine share compared to their overall populations, cases, and number of deaths. This implies that as of May 2021, the vaccination rates among people of color were lower compared to the whites (Lee et al., 2021). However, further research has revealed that people are more open-minded towards vaccination, and the rates have been increasing for almost all groups (Lee et al., 2021). Conversely, the vaccination rates gaps among Hispanic and Blacks are still persistent. The disparities are also a reflection of the long-standing racial