hi dear, 

can help me to finish this assignment with good quality and be on time please?

all the readings are attached, please have it with the correct APA citation. 

Week One Discussion 1Part 1:Ask one question from your readings.The critical thinking question must be thoughtful, in depth, and based on information gathered from the readings. It should be clear that you have read the readings and thought about them. These questions are your own questions that you thought about during the readings (e.g. This week we read about poor access to water.)· There are various solutions through boreholes, water kiosks, and rock catchments, but what, in your opinion, do you think is the best solution?· How do we make these projects sustainable? Lastly, is there a specific region you would focus on? Part 2:Answer at least one question in Question 1;

Week One Discussion 2

How do you think cost-effectiveness analysis should be used by government making an ethical decision about allocating scare healthcare resources, such as antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS?

Week One Discussion 3

What is the role of education in global health? If you had to pick an issue that could offer deliverable changes through education in global health, which would you choose and why?


Global Health

Week One : Chapter one

Chapter one – Global Health. In this chapter we are going to learn about three distinct concepts which are health, public health, and global health. We will be learning about Millennium Development Goals and their relation with global health. The world continues to shrink at a very rapid pace. For health, security, and humanitarian reasons, each of us should be concerned about the health of everyone else.


Video : NU library films on Demand , Delivering the Goods segment 1. Paradox of Global Health (02:03)


Global Health

In this short video, we will get a glimpse of global health.


Understand the progress that has already been made.

Understand the challenges that still remain.

Diseases are not limited by national boundaries.

Significant health disparities among groups.

Link between health and development.

Why Study Global Health?

There has been significant success in human health in the last 50 years. This is reflected in the substantial progress in health, for example, in life expectancy. However, there are also significant health disparities as we compare health of one group or one country to other. Hundreds of millions of people, especially poorer people in low- and middle-income countries, continue to get sick, be disabled by, or die from preventable causes of diseases. Many people, especially poor people in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, have been left behind. Diseases are not limited by national boundaries – cases of HIV could very well affect the population of other countries. There are strong links between health, human development, labor productivity, and economic development all of which contribute to global health and development.



“Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”

Public Health

“…the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and mental health and efficiency through organized community efforts toward a sanitary environment; the control of community infections; the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene; the organization of medical and nursing service for the early diagnosis and treatment of disease; and the development of the social machinery to ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequ

Health Determinants, Measurements, and Trends

Chapter 2

Chapter 2: Health determinants, measurements, and trends


Key Concepts in Relation to Global Health

The determinants of health

Key health indicators

Measuring the burden of disease

The global burden of disease

The key risk factors for various health problems

The demographic and epidemiological transitions

In this chapter we are going to discuss what the issues that influence global health are, how health status is measured, what are the global burden and what are some key risk factors for global health problems. Many factors act in combination that affect the health of individuals, communities, and in the bigger picture global health.


The factors that influence health status most

The indicators used to measure health status

The key trends that have occurred historically

The Importance of Measuring Health Status

As we try to define health, we also try to quantify the amount of health an individual or a community possesses. Two basic things are taken in consideration –what are the indicators taken into account to measure the health status and what are the factors that influence health status. Finally, the key trends in health status that have been going on historically gives us clear idea about the health in a certain country.


Figure 2.1: Key Determinants of Health

Data from: The Public Health Agency of Canada. What Determines Health. Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php#determinants. Accessed November 19, 2010.

Source: Dahlgren G. and Whitehead M. 1991

The notion of good health became synonymous with access to health care while health depends on number of factors. As we will move with this course, we will see that there are interconnected factors that determine an individual’s health status. Determinants include personal features, like genetic makeup, sex and age; have significant contribution on what diseases we get and how healthy we live. For instance, if one inherits genetic component for breast cancer then to have the disease, it is also important to have appropriate exposures which might actually cause the disease in that person. Social status and culture very intricately relate with disease occurrence. Higher social status paired with higher income often leads to higher education and better health. Environment, both indoor and outdoor, plays a role in determining health. Safe and pollution free outdoor environment could enhance health while indoor air pollution and poor ventilation c

Health, Education, Poverty,
and the Economy

Chapter Three

Chapter three: Health, Education, Poverty and the Economy


To understand the two way relationship between health and development.

To examine the connection between health and education.

To review the link between health and poverty and health and equity.

To explore the link between health and income and health and expenditure at the individual and national level.

Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

To understand the two way relationship between health and development

To examine the connection between health and education

To review the link between health and poverty and health and equity

To explore the link between health and income and health and expenditure at the individual and national level.


Health and education of parents affects health and education of children.

Malnutrition and disease affect cognitive development.

Education contributes to disease prevention.

Health and Education

Health, Education, Productivity, and Poverty

The AIDS epidemic has shown us the impact of parents’ health on children’s health. When mothers die of HIV/AIDS or get diagnosed with the disease, the children are more likely to be malnourished, less likely to attend the school, and more likely to drop out from school. When children are malnourished it affects the their ability to perform in the school by interacting with their cognitive development. Education is such a strong determinants of health that mothers education influence child health to a greater extent. Numerous studies have shown that better educated mothers are more likely to keep their children healthy, more likely to play a role in child’s survival. It was shown that higher educational attainment of mother is positively associated with reduced infant, neonatal and under five child mortality rate.


Health Productivity and Earnings

Good health increases longevity, lifetime earnings.

Healthy workers are more productive than unhealthy workers.

Health is wealth. A person’s productivity depends on his or her health. A study done in Indonesia on rubber worker, it was shown that workers’ productivity was increased by 20% after they were treated for anemia that was caused by hookworm infection. As it could be imagined that as good health increases the productivity, lacking good health cost high to the individual, family, and in the long run on the health care system.


Costs of health care are high.

Illness often leads to a decrease in

Ethical and Human Rights Concerns in Global Health

Chapter Four

Chapter four: Ethical and human rights concerns in global health.

As with any area of health, global health is affected by the issues of ethics and right for sound health outcome. In this chapter we will explore ethical and human rights concerns, some of the central treaties and conversions related to human rights, some historically significant cases in human subject research and key principles for making critical decisions in health research.


Failure to respect human rights is often associated with harm to human health

Health research with human subjects puts people at risk for the sake of other people’s health

Health investments must be made in fair ways since resources are limited

The Importance of Ethical and Human Rights Issues in Global Health

Access to the health care is human right and failure to respect this right might causes harm for health. For example, the stigma associated with HIV, TB and leprosy makes it difficult for the patient to obtain necessary health care, it not only cause harm to individual health but as a whole community health even. For example, if a TB patient remains untreated by the health care workers, then that individual could be a source of infection for other people.

Health research with human subject in particular in low income countries where study participants may not have other option to obtain the medication might become a proxy of clinical trial for other people .Lastly, fair decision in health investment is critical because in low income countries where health resources are scare difficult decisions need to be made depending on the priority and severity of disease.


The Foundations for Health and Human Rights

Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other legally binding multilateral treaties

Governments are obliged to respect, protect, and fulfill the rights they state

International Bill of Human Rights is the cornerstone for human rights. This bill include couple of documents including the Universal declaration of human rights that was officially declared in 1948, that place obligation on Government to respect , protect, and fulfill the rights of the state.


Selected Human Rights

The Rights-Based Approach

Assess health policies, programs, and practices in terms of impact on human rights

Analyze and address the health impacts resulting from violations of human rights when considering ways to improve population health

Prioritize the fulfillment of human rights

In considering human right, first we are going to examine the issue of right based approach. Some global h