due 27 june plagerism free with turnitin score sheet attached.

APA format 

follow the instructions as specified.

due sunday 26 june 

Module 5 – Home

CONSENT AND RESEARCH

Modular Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to satisfy the following outcomes:

· Case

· Examine the ethical implications of “consent.”

· SLP

· Select a national healthcare agency and discuss the ethical standards that apply to experimentation and research.

· Discussion

· Discuss whether healthcare personnel should be involved in assisted suicide from an ethical perspective.

Module Overview

Human Experimentation

The Nuremberg Code of 1946 was the first publicly written international document providing a code of ethics relating to research on human subjects. The Code represented an absolute commitment to the doctrine of informed consent. “The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.” Also, the duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of consent rests “upon each individual who initiates, directs, or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.” Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunal under Control Council Law No. 10 (Vol. 2) (Washington, D.C.,: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949).

While the Nuremberg Code focused on the responsibility of the individual engaging in research activities, the United States Federal Government has placed responsibility on institutions as well as the individual. By 1970, the first federal guidelines designed to protect human research subjects were issued by what is now the Department of Health and Human Services. Federal regulations now require that all research projects funded by the DHHS be reviewed by local institutional review boards (IRB). The IRB is said to be the central mechanism through which the regulatory goal of protecting the rights and welfare of subjects of research is carried out.

Informed Consent

Medical procedures and experimentation required the expressed written consent of patients and participants. Consent sometimes called informed consent involves obtaining permission to proceed with procedures or experimentation after the patient/participant was informed of the risks, procedures, benefits, and safeguards that are in place to protect the best interest of the patient/participant.

The matter of consent can raise legal and ethical challenges if the patient/participant is mentally handicapped or otherwise incapacitated. Those lacking the cognitive faculties to understand the information may rely upon caretakers.

End-of-life

End-of-life decisions can be difficult for family members of those incapacitated and not expected to recover. When does life end? Who should decide when life should end? Should medical professionals rely on the subjective opinions of family memb

Module 5 – Case

CONSENT AND RESEARCH

Assignment Overview

For this Case Assignment, you are part of a medical research team and are tasked with gaining informed consent from potential participants. The study will seek to test an experimental drug with patients suffering from late-stage leukemia. The sample will be divided into a control group and the experimental group. Participants in the control group will be given a placebo, which could increase the progression of their disease. The sample will be composed of children.

Case Assignment

Discuss how you would go about seeking the consent of participants.

· What questions would you expect from their parents/guardians?

· How much information should you share with the children?

· Should this type of study involve children given the risks of speeding the progression of the disease?

Assignment Expectations

1. Apply critical thinking skills within the write-up for this assignment, especially with regard to #2 and #3 above.

2. Limit your responses to a maximum of three pages, not including title and reference pages.

3. Provide scholarly support for your justifications. Be sure to properly cite all references.

Your paper will be evaluated based on the rubric criteria.



Module 5 – SLP

CONSENT AND RESEARCH

The ultimate goal of the Session Long Project is to identify and evaluate the ethical principles used in resolving ethical dilemmas, and to apply the principles to specific ethical issues that may have professional, sociological, economic, and legal or political implications.

Select a national (government) healthcare agency and discuss the ethical practices that it applies to experimentation and research.

SLP Assignment Expectations

1. Identify the practice along with a companion theory.

2. Are these practices enough to ensure safe and ethical research? If not what should be added to them?

3. Limit your responses to a maximum of three pages, not including title and reference pages.

4. Be sure to provide scholarly support for your discussion.

5. Several (3-5) scholarly references should be cited for this assignment. Be sure to properly cite all references.

6. Apply critical thinking skills within the write-up for this assignment.

Your paper will be evaluated based on the rubric criteria.

Please be sure to provide citations of sources consulted in preparing your paper in the body of the actual document itself (i.e. in addition to furnishing a reference list). Remember, any statement that you make that is not common knowledge or that originates from your synthesis or interpretation of materials you have read must have a citation associated with it. For guidelines on in-text citations, visit the following web site: 


http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html



Ethics mod 5 discussion

Consent to Terminate Care

 
https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gifActions for ‘Consent to Terminate Care’

 


https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gifPrevious 

Next https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gif


https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gifHide Description

Your comments will be graded on how well they meet the Discussion Requirements posted under “Before You Begin.”

In Belgium, where euthanasia has been legal for people over the age of 18 since 2002, the government is considering an amendment to the law to include children. This is something that no other developed country has permitted (Belgium). The same bill would offer the right to die to adults with early dementia (Belgium). Advocates argue that euthanasia for children, with the consent of their parents, is necessary to give families an option in a desperately painful situation (Belgium). However, opponents have questioned whether children can reasonably decide to end their own lives (Belgium). In the last decade, the number of reported cases per year has risen from 235 deaths in 2003 to 1,432 in 2012, the last year for which statistics are available (Belgium). Doctors typically give patients a powerful sedative before injecting another drug to stop their heart. Only a few countries have legalized euthanasia or anything approaching it. In the Netherlands, euthanasia is legal under specific circumstances and for children over the age of 12 with parental consent (there is an understanding that infants, too, can be euthanized, and that doctors will not be prosecuted if they act appropriately) (Belgium). Elsewhere in Europe, euthanasia is only legal in Luxembourg. In the U.S., Oregon is the only state that legalized physician-assisted suicide. Assisted suicide, where doctors help a patient to die but do not actively kill them, is allowed in Switzerland. Is it ethical for healthcare professionals to support the practice of assisted suicide/euthanasia? Regardless of your personal view on the topic, please provide an argument which supports, and then opposes the practice of assisted suicide/euthanasia. Be certain to support your positions with credible evidence. 

Reference

Belgium considering controversial new euthanasia law for children.

Consent forms for Research must include several elements

Identify Research

  • The subject’s involvement must be identified as research
  • The research must be described
  • The purpose of the research must be explained

Risks

  • Risks and consequences of the research activity must be clearly set forth

Benefits

  • The benefits of the proposed research must be explained

Alternatives

  • If the investigations is clinical, the diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives must be described

Research Records

  • The mechanism and process of protecting privacy and maintaining confidentiality of records and data must be described

Compensation

  • The availability of compensation for participation must be explained
  • The availability of treatment in the event of injury must be explained

Contact Person

  • The consent form must clearly identify the person to contact with questions, concerns, inquiries, or in the event of injury

Individual Rights

  • The right of the individual to refuse participation or withdraw from the research must be explained

Module 4 – Home

DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

Modular Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to satisfy the following outcomes:

· Case

· Discuss the ethical issues related to healthcare rationing and organ transplantation.

· Identify and discuss the origins of organ procurement organizations (OPOs).

· Discuss the early beginnings of transplantation and lessons learned.

· SLP

· Examine and resolve ethical dilemmas related to resource allocation.

· Discuss the theory of relational ethics as it relates to resource allocation.

· Discussion

· Discuss ethical dimensions of resource allocation and rationing in healthcare. What ethical guidelines should influence resource allocation in healthcare?

Module Overview

Rationing

According to Chris Hackler, in health care, we see rationing in one of three practices:

· Limit the amount money spent on health care is an example of the allocation of financial resources;

· Distribution of scarce organs for transplantation is an example of the distribution of scarce goods; and

· The practice of triage in the emergency room is an example of prioritizing services.

Managed Care and Rationing

While the managed care concept has been around since the early 1900s, it wasn’t until the Nixon administration that we saw the birth of the HMO and proliferation of “managed care.” As you are well aware, Managed Care is a financing philosophy that emphasizes the cost effective delivery of health care.

This approach to health care delivery has raised a number of ethical questions, one of which is whether managed care organizations (MCO) ration health care services due to the costs of such care, and the obligation and desire to be profitable.

This approach has placed providers in the unenviable position of gatekeepers. Providers are required to consider the costs of health care services being recommended; specially, in Health Maintenance Organizations where the providers receive annual bonuses based on the savings they created during the year by not referring patients to specialists and/or specialty care. The effect of these bonus arrangements has been obvious. There is a built in incentive to under-treat or limit care. Also, the providers have been prevented from acting as advocates for their patients; instead, they are agents for the MCOs.

Organ Transplantation

According to the United Network of Organ Sharing (

UNOS

), every 14 minutes a new name is added to the transplant waiting list. Although the number of issues are great, the number one issue related to organ transplantation is the shortage of organ donors. The implications become clear when one recognize

Ethics Mod 4 discussion
Ethics and Organ Transplantation


 
https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gifActions for ‘Ethics and Organ Transplantation’

 


https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gifPrevious 

Next https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gif


https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gifHide Description

Your comments will be graded on how well they meet the Discussion Requirements posted under “Before You Begin.”

The rationing of scarce healthcare resources is a subject that is both politically sensitive and raises a number of ethical dilemmas for those charged with making treatment decisions. The ethical dilemma is health care is how to balance the precepts of autonomy, beneficence, and distributive justice. Rationing may affect 3 dimensions of coverage: the share of the population covered; the services covered; and the extent to which services are covered (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). The U.S. spends 50% more per capita on health care than any other country while achieving worse health than many (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). Poorly coordinated insurance mechanisms leave 19% of the population uninsured (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). Until passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) in 2010, health care was effectively a privilege, not a right (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). While PPACA seeks to rectify this, by 2019 five percent of non-elderly U.S. residents will likely remain uninsured (Tuetsch & Rechel, 2012).  There are some who believe the U.S. healthcare system is broken and in desperate need of a radical change—the very change that the passage of the ACA represents. It could be argued that the ACA will only worsen the rationing of healthcare services in the United States. What is your position on this matter? Is the rationing of healthcare a bad thing or a necessary action? What ethical dilemmas might be associated with the rationing of healthcare services and how could they be effectively addressed? Please support your positions/arguments with credible evidence.

Reference

Teutsch, S. & Rechel, B. (2012). Ethics of resource allocation and rationing medical care in a time of fiscal restraint – U.S. and Europe. Public Health Review, 34(1). 

Module 4 – Case

DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

Case Assignment

One of the most difficult dilemmas to resolve relates to the allocation of valuable, but scarce resources. Setting standards by which resources are allocated is not an easy task. We hear about patients every day that don’t make it because there aren’t enough organs for those on the list. Please read the article: History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations by Howard, Cornell, and Cochran. After reading the article and doing additional research, please respond to the following questions.

1. Discuss some of the earliest examples of transplantation. Do you think these early experiments made it easier for it to become so commonplace today? What lessons can we learn from the early pioneers?

2. Discuss the process of using organs from deceased patients. What are at least two ethical principles that apply to this process? Be sure to address distributive justice as one of your choices. What are the ethical issues that may arise? What are some instances where the dead donor rule has been violated?

3. Briefly discuss the origins of organ procurement organizations (OPO). What role do they play in organ donations? What ethical issues do you see with these organizations? What are the rules and regulations that govern these organizations?

4. We tend to think of organ transplantation as pertaining to healthcare alone. Provide some examples of how your specific discipline might impact some aspect of organ donation. For example, how might a public health agency impact the process or rules and regulations for organ donation?

Use the information in the modular background readings as well as resources you find through ProQuest or other online sources. Please be sure to cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of the paper. Submit the paper as a WORD document through the link provided for the assignment.

Assignment Expectations

1. Discuss Mr. Krampitz’s case from the perspective of distributive justice and the allocation of scarce resources.

2. Limit your responses to three pages, not including title and reference pages.

3. Be sure to incorporate module and course concepts into your discussion.

4. Be sure to apply critical thinking skills in your write-up.

5. Provide several (3-5) scholarly references to support your discussions and be certain to properly cite all references.

Please be sure to provide citations of sources consulted in preparing your paper in the body of the actual document itself (i.e. in addition to furnishing a reference list). Remember, any statement that you make that is not common knowledge or that originates from your synthesis or interpretation of materials you have read must have a citation associated with it. For guidelines on in-text citations, visit t

Module 4 – SLP

DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

The goal of the Session Long Project is to identify and evaluate the ethical principles used in resolving ethical dilemmas, and to apply the principles to specific ethical issues that may have professional, sociological, economic, legal or political implications.

Often times a patient needs a lot of resources prior to being discharged from the hospital. Some organizations use discharge planners or case managers to aid in acquiring these resources. The topic of this SLP is about Jenna, a young woman who could not be discharged home until the issue of resources to care for her was resolved. This story demonstrates that resource allocation decision making is inherently complex, a process that is dynamic, multidimensional, and iterative. After reading the article, “The relational nature of case manager resource allocation decision making: An illustrated case” by Fraser, Estabrooks, and Strang and doing additional research, please respond to the questions listed below:

1. Provide a brief summary of Jenna’s case. What was her medical condition? What was her prognosis? Why was it important for her to go home? Did she get to go home? If so, how did that impact her recovery?

2. What were the resources that Jenna needed to go home? What barriers did her case manager encounter in acquiring these resources?

3. Discuss the theory of relational ethics as it applies to this case. What is it? How does it impact the allocation of resources?  Think about your own discipline of study, how does this theory apply to acquiring scare resources? Provide an example.

4. Based on what you have read about this case and resource allocation, do you agree with the statement “that resource allocation decision making is inherently complex, a process that is dynamic, multidimensional, and iterative”? Why or why not? What are your views on the fairness of the process? Was it done in a fair manner in this case? Did Jenna get preferential treatment because of her case manager? If there was no one advocating for her, what do you think the outcome would have been?

SLP Assignment Expectations

1. You will be expected to provide a scholarly basis for your response.

2. Your opinions must be justified with evidence from the literature.

3. References should be cited properly in the text of your essay (either in parentheses or as footnotes), as well as at the end.

4. Several (3-5) scholarly references should be cited for this assignment.

5. Please limit your response to 3 pages maximum, not including title and reference pages.

6. Be sure to apply critical thinking skills to your assignment write-up.

Your paper will be evaluated based on the rubric criteria.

Please be sure to provide citations of sources consulted in preparing your paper in the body of the actual document itself (i.e. in