Can you help me with my homework.


Diversity: Module 3..


Textbook:

Andrews, M. M., Boyle, J. S., & Collins, J.W., (2020). Transcultural concepts in nursing care (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer/LWW.

· Chapters 7 and 8

Ackley, B.J., Ludwig, G.B,,  Flynn Makic, M.B., Martinez-Ktatz, M., & Zanotti, M.  (2020). Nursing process, clinical reasoning, nursing diagnosis, and evidence-based nursing. In Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care (12th ed.). Mosby.

· Pages 1-15


Click here
 to download the article

You can read pages 1 – 15 at the following url: (no option to print and save). Click on “Look Inside


https://www.amazon.com/Nursing-Diagnosis-Handbook-Evidence-Based-Planning/dp/0323551122


.


Journal Articles:

Marcelin, J.R., Siraj, D.S., Victor, R., Kotadia, S., & Maldonado, Y.A.   (2019). The impact of unconscious bias in healthcare: How to recognize and mitigate it. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 220(2), S62-S73. 
https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz214

.


Click here
 to download the article.

..

.

Narayan, M.C. (2018). How to provide “Culturally Competent Care”. Home Healthcare Now,

36(1), 60. 
https://doi.org/10.1097/NHH.0000000000000639

.


Click here
 to download the article

I SECTION Nursing Process, Clinical
I Reasoning, Nursing Diagnosis,

and Evidence-Based Nursing .

Betty J. Ackley, MSN, EdS, RN, Gail B. Ladwig, MSN, RN,

Mary Beth Flynn Makic, PhD, RN, CNS, CCNS, FAAN,

and Marina Martinez-Kratz, MS, RN, CNE

Section I is divided into two parts. Part A includes an overview of the nursing process. 1his section provides
information on how to make a nursing diagnosis and directions on how to plan nursing care. It also includes
information on using clinical reasoning skills and eliciting the “patient’s story.” Part B includes advanced nursing
concepts.

Part A: The Nursing Process: Usin..,i Clinical Reasoning Skills to Determine Nursing Diagnosis and
Plan Care

1. Assessing: performing a nursing assessment
2. Diagnosing: making nursing diagnoses
3. Planning: formulating and writing outcome statements and determining appropriate nursing interventions

based on appropriate best mdence (research)
4. Implementing care
5. Evaluating the outcomet and the JltlrSing care that has been implemented. Make necessary revisions in

care interventions as needed

Part B: Advanced Nursing Concepts

• Concept mapping
• QSEN (Quality and Safety Education for Nurses)
• Evidence-based nursing care
• Quality nursing care
• Patient-centered care
• Safety
• Informatics in nursing
• Team/collaborative work with interprofessional team

2 SECTION I

PART

A
The Nursing Process: Using Clinical Reasoning Skills to

Determine Nursing Diagnoses and Plan Care

The primary goals of nursing are to (l) determine client/
family responses to human problems, level of wellness, and
need for assistance; (2) provide physical care, emotional care,
teaching, guidance, and counseling; and (3) implement inter­
ventions aimed at prevention and assisting the client to meet
his or her own needs and health-related goals. The nurse must
al\’.ays focus on assisting clients and families to their highest
level of functioning and self-care. The care that is provided
should be structured in a way that allows clients the ability
to influence their health care and accomplish their self­
efficacy goals. The nursing process, which is a problem­
solving approach to the identification and treatment of client
problems, provides a framework for assisting clients and
families to their optimal level of functioning. The nursing
process involves five dynamic and fluid phases: assessment,
diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
Within each of these phases, the client and family story is
embedded and is used as a foundation for knowledge, judg­
ment, and actions brought to the client care experience. A
description of the “patient’s story” and each aspect of the
nursing process follow.

THE “PATIENT’S STORY”

The “patient’s stor

S U P P L E M E N T A R T I C L E

The Journal of Infectious Diseases

S62 • jid 2019:220 (Suppl 2) • Marcelin et al

Correspondence: J. R. Marcelin, MD, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Nebraska
Medical Center, 985400 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5400 (jasmine.marcelin@
unmc.edu).

The Journal of Infectious Diseases® 2019;220(S2):S62–73
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society
of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected].
DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiz214

The Impact of Unconscious Bias in Healthcare: How to
Recognize and Mitigate It
Jasmine R Marcelin,1, Dawd S. Siraj,2 Robert Victor,3 Shaila Kotadia,3 and Yvonne A Maldonado3

1University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha; 2University of Wisconsin, Madison; and 3Stanford University School of Medicine, California

The increasing diversity in the US population is reflected in the patients who healthcare professionals treat. Unfortunately, this
diversity is not always represented by the demographic characteristics of healthcare professionals themselves. Patients from under-
represented groups in the United States can experience the effects of unintentional cognitive (unconscious) biases that derive from
cultural stereotypes in ways that perpetuate health inequities. Unconscious bias can also affect healthcare professionals in many
ways, including patient-clinician interactions, hiring and promotion, and their own interprofessional interactions. The strategies
described in this article can help us recognize and mitigate unconscious bias and can help create an equitable environment in health-
care, including the field of infectious diseases.

Keywords. Unconscious bias; diversity and inclusion; mitigating strategies.

There is compelling evidence that increasing diversity in the
healthcare workforce improves healthcare delivery, espe-
cially to underrepresented segments of the population [1, 2].
Although we are familiar with the term “underrepresented mi-
nority” (URM), the Association of American Medical Colleges,
has coined a similar term, which can be interchangeable:
“Underrepresented in medicine means those racial and ethnic
populations that are underrepresented in the medical profes-
sion relative to their numbers in the general population” [3].
However, this definition does not include other nonracial or
ethnic groups that may be underrepresented in medicine, such
as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning/queer
(LGBTQ) individuals or persons with disabilities. US census
data estimate that the prevalence of African American and
Hispanic individuals in the US population is 13% and 18%, re-
spectively [4], while

CONSULT PRN

60 Volume 36 | Number 1 www.homehealthcarenow.org

How to Provide “Culturally Competent Care”
MARY CURRY NARAYAN, MSN, RN, HHCNS-BC, CTN-A

You have already taken the first
step to being a culturally com-
petent home healthcare clinician
by recognizing that you need to
adapt care to meet the needs of
your culturally diverse patients.
Research indicates that racially/
ethnically diverse patients are at
risk for health disparities (Agency
for Healthcare Research and
Quality, 2015). A recent system-
atic review of the home health-
care literature found that racially/
ethnically diverse home care pa-
tients have poorer clinical, func-
tional, and patient satisfaction
outcomes compared with White
home care patients (Narayan &
Scafide, 2017). Culturally com-
petent care is basically “patient-
centered care” (meeting patient
needs and preferences as defined
by the patient) for culturally/lin-
guistically diverse patients.

One of the challenges in pro-
viding care across cultures is
that “good health” and “good
care” are defined differently by
different cultural groups. Eti-
quette norms (the way we show
respect for one another) and
ethical norms (the way we do
the “right” thing) vary across
cultures. The kinds of foods one
eats and the kinds of treatments
one believes promote health
also vary by culture. Although
it is impossible to be an expert
in the norms of all cultures, you

My agency is accepting
more referrals for immigrants
and patients who do not
speak English. I know that
I should provide “culturally
competent care,” but exactly
how do I do this?

Q:
can learn about the beliefs, val-
ues, and practices of the patient
populations you most frequently
encounter through Internet re-
sources and other sources of
knowledge, including cultural
community leaders. However,
relying solely on cultural knowl-
edge, without asking patients
about their preferences, can
lead to stereotyping, imposing
on patients’ beliefs, values, or
practices they do not hold.

Here are some principles I
keep in mind: 1) If the patient
does not speak English well, work
with a medical interpreter when
performing comprehensive as-
sessments or providing educa-
tion. 2) Perform culturally sen-
sitive assessments, identifying
how the patient’s culture affects
their care preferences. Ask how
their health problems affect them,
what they think is wrong, and how
the problem is most likely to be
helped. What kind of diet would
be helpful? What do they think of
the medications/treatments the
physician has recommended? 3)
Adapt the care plan to the pa-
tient’s cultural preferences iden-
tified during your assessment.
I recommend an Encourage-Ac-
commodate-Negotiate framework
for developing the care plan. You
will discover that many cultural
norms, based on current evi-
dence, are more health-promot-
ing than many We

CONSULT PRN

60 Volume 36 | Number 1 www.homehealthcarenow.org

How to Provide “Culturally Competent Care”
MARY CURRY NARAYAN, MSN, RN, HHCNS-BC, CTN-A

You have already taken the first
step to being a culturally com-
petent home healthcare clinician
by recognizing that you need to
adapt care to meet the needs of
your culturally diverse patients.
Research indicates that racially/
ethnically diverse patients are at
risk for health disparities (Agency
for Healthcare Research and
Quality, 2015). A recent system-
atic review of the home health-
care literature found that racially/
ethnically diverse home care pa-
tients have poorer clinical, func-
tional, and patient satisfaction
outcomes compared with White
home care patients (Narayan &
Scafide, 2017). Culturally com-
petent care is basically “patient-
centered care” (meeting patient
needs and preferences as defined
by the patient) for culturally/lin-
guistically diverse patients.

One of the challenges in pro-
viding care across cultures is
that “good health” and “good
care” are defined differently by
different cultural groups. Eti-
quette norms (the way we show
respect for one another) and
ethical norms (the way we do
the “right” thing) vary across
cultures. The kinds of foods one
eats and the kinds of treatments
one believes promote health
also vary by culture. Although
it is impossible to be an expert
in the norms of all cultures, you

My agency is accepting
more referrals for immigrants
and patients who do not
speak English. I know that
I should provide “culturally
competent care,” but exactly
how do I do this?

Q:
can learn about the beliefs, val-
ues, and practices of the patient
populations you most frequently
encounter through Internet re-
sources and other sources of
knowledge, including cultural
community leaders. However,
relying solely on cultural knowl-
edge, without asking patients
about their preferences, can
lead to stereotyping, imposing
on patients’ beliefs, values, or
practices they do not hold.

Here are some principles I
keep in mind: 1) If the patient
does not speak English well, work
with a medical interpreter when
performing comprehensive as-
sessments or providing educa-
tion. 2) Perform culturally sen-
sitive assessments, identifying
how the patient’s culture affects
their care preferences. Ask how
their health problems affect them,
what they think is wrong, and how
the problem is most likely to be
helped. What kind of diet would
be helpful? What do they think of
the medications/treatments the
physician has recommended? 3)
Adapt the care plan to the pa-
tient’s cultural preferences iden-
tified during your assessment.
I recommend an Encourage-Ac-
commodate-Negotiate framework
for developing the care plan. You
will discover that many cultural
norms, based on current evi-
dence, are more health-promot-
ing than many We


Diversity/Module3


Journal Article:

Narayan, M.C. (2018). How to provide “Culturally Competent Care”. Home Healthcare Now, 36(1). DOI:10.1097/NHH.0000000000000639 


Click here
 to download the article.


Guiding Questions: 

Use the questions below to help focus your attention on your reading assignments. 

1. How does culture influence adult development? 

1. What are the influences of culture on caregiving in the African American culture? 

1. How does gender and specific religious beliefs and practices influence health and illness during crisis or transitions? 

1. How does socioeconomic factors, including income level, influence the interactions of older adults? 

1. What nursing interventions are based on the patients’ cultural values and individual preferences? 

1. What is the importance of cultural values, beliefs and practices related to mental health nursing care? 

1. How do you make a nursing diagnosis and directions on how to plan nursing care? 

Nursing Diagnosis Website

https://nurseslabs.com/nursing-diagnosis/#h-problem-focused-nursing-diagnosis

Diversity/ Module 3 DB

Overview

For this discussion, first, read chapter 7 in your textbook, Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care.

Use the Critical Thinking Activity #5 on page 234 in your textbook to respond to the following questions:

1. Explain the difference between gang membership in El Salvador and the United States. 

1. What are the cultural factors that are important to consider when you are planning nursing care for a patient like Jose? 

1. For an example, how do you view body tattoos?  

1. What are the issues related to political asylum, immigration, and the like? 

1. How would you assist Jose to meet his developmental needs? 

1. What might be the problems he will encounter in the U.S. society? 

1. What might be the problems he will encounter in the U.S. healthcare system? 

Points: 30

Due Dates:

· Initial Post: Fri, April 8 by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) of the US.

· Response Post: Sun, April 10 by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) of the US – (the response posts cannot be done on the same day as the initial post).

References:

· Initial Post: Minimum of two (2) total references: one (1) from required course materials and one (1) from peer-reviewed references.

· Response posts: Minimum of one (1) total reference: one (1) from peer-reviewed or course materials reference per response.

Words Limits

· Initial Post: Minimum 200 words excluding references (approximately one (1) page)

· Response posts: Minimum 100 words excluding references.

Note: Since it is difficult to edit the APA reference in the Blackboard discussion area, you can copy and paste APA references from your Word document to the Blackboard discussion area.  Points will not be deducted because of format changes in spacing.

Instructions

To be successful, complete the following steps in order:

STEP 1. Review the overview.

STEP 2. 
Click here
 to download the rubric. 

STEP 3. Create a new Word document, type your initial post.

STEP 4. Copy the initial post from the Word document.

STEP 5. Click on “DISCUSSIONS” section located on the left-hand side of your screen in Blackboard.

STEP 6. Post in the discussion forum titled “M3 A5 DB: BIAS AND STEREOTYPING”

Got questions? Please post them to the ‘QUESTION & ANSWER FORUM’ in Blackboard.

Diversity/ Module 3/ DB question.

Critical Thinking Question #5

You are assigned a new patient, a 24-year old man, from El Salvador named Jose Calderon. At morning report, you learn that he has been a gang member in El Salvador, and because he wanted to stop all gang-related activities, his life was threatened. He fled to the United States and has been granted political asylum. You are told that he has extensive tattoos on his body. What do you know about gang membership in Central America? In the United States? How does membership in a gang address the needs of adolescents? What are the cultural factors that are important to consider when you are planning nursing care for a patient like Jose? For example, how do you view body tattoos? What are the issues related to political asylum, immigration, and the like? How might you assist Jose to meet his development needs? What might be the problems he will encounter in the US society or in our health care system?


Diversity: Module 3..


Textbook:

Andrews, M. M., Boyle, J. S., & Collins, J.W., (2020). Transcultural concepts in nursing care (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer/LWW.

· Chapters 7 and 8

Ackley, B.J., Ludwig, G.B,,  Flynn Makic, M.B., Martinez-Ktatz, M., & Zanotti, M.  (2020). Nursing process, clinical reasoning, nursing diagnosis, and evidence-based nursing. In Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care (12th ed.). Mosby.

· Pages 1-15


Click here
 to download the article

You can read pages 1 – 15 at the following url: (no option to print and save). Click on “Look Inside


https://www.amazon.com/Nursing-Diagnosis-Handbook-Evidence-Based-Planning/dp/0323551122


.


Journal Articles:

Marcelin, J.R., Siraj, D.S., Victor, R., Kotadia, S., & Maldonado, Y.A.   (2019). The impact of unconscious bias in healthcare: How to recognize and mitigate it. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 220(2), S62-S73. 
https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz214

.


Click here
 to download the article.

..

.

Narayan, M.C. (2018). How to provide “Culturally Competent Care”. Home Healthcare Now,

36(1), 60. 
https://doi.org/10.1097/NHH.0000000000000639

.


Click here
 to download the article