Assignment 2: Defining the Problem and Research Methods

Sections 1 and 2 of Major Assessment 7: Using an Epidemiological Approach to Critically Analyze a Population Health Problem

How do culture and environment influence health? What role does personality play in health outcomes? How do stressful life events influence disease? As a health care professional, you have most likely witnessed the influence of psychosocial factors on individual health. These factors also have a significant impact on population health. Chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and heart disease, as well as degenerative diseases, can be studied at the population level through the use of epidemiologic methods (Friis, 2014). The insights gained from this type of research can then positively impact health outcomes locally, nationally, and globally.

As you continue working on Assignment 2, which is due by Thursday 04/05/2018 Day 5 of this week, consider how psychosocial factors influence your population and population health issue.

To complete:

In 5–6 pages, APA format with a minimum of five (5) scholarly references (see list of required readings below), write the following sections of your paper:

Section 1: The Problem

1) Introduction (ending with a purpose statement: “the purpose of this paper is…)

2) A brief outline of the environment you selected (i.e., home, workplace, school)

3) A summary of your selected population health problem in terms of person, place, and time, and the magnitude of the problem based on data from appropriate data resources (Reference the data resources you used.)

4) Research question/hypothesis (same as the one in assignment 1. I’m including an attachment of assignment 1 you did for me).

Section 2: Research Methods

1) The epidemiologic study design you would use to assess and address your population health problem

2) Assessment strategies (i.e., if you were conducting a case-control study, how would you select your cases and controls? Regarding the methods and tools, you would use to make these selections, how is it convenient for you as the researcher or as the investigator to use this tool?)

3) Summary of the data collection activities (i.e., how you would collect data—online survey, paper/pen, mailing, etc.)

4) Conclusion of the whole paper.

Required Readings

Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2014). Epidemiology for public health practice (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Chapter 10, “Data Interpretation Issues”

Chapter 15, “Social, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Epidemiology”

Appendix A – Guide to the Critical Appraisal of an Epidemiologic/Public Health Research Article

In Chapter 10, the authors describe issues related to data interpretation and address the main types of research errors that need to be considered when conducting epidemiologic research, as well as when analyzing published results. It also presents techniques for reducing bias. Chapter 15 features psychosocial, behavioral, and social epidemiology. Appendix A includes criteria to consider when reading an empirical journal article.

Elliott, A. M., Smith, B. H., Penny, K., Smith, W. C., & Chambers, W. A. (1999). The epidemiology of chronic pain in the community. The Lancet, 354(9186), 1248–1252.

This article describes an early epidemiologic study on chronic pain. Carefully review this article noting the structure of the research design, assessment and data collection, and analysis strategies. You will refer to this article for Discussion 2.

Oppenheimer, G. M. (2010). Framingham Heart Study: The first 20 years. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 53(1), 55–61.

The Framingham Heart Study is a landmark epidemiologic study that began in the 1940s. The author of this article reviews the history of the Framingham Heart Study and its contribution to population health. As you read this article, consider any sources of bias or potential conflict of interest. You will refer to this article for Discussion 2.

Phillips, C. V., & Goodman, K. J. (2004). The missed lessons of Sir Austin Bradford Hill. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 1(3). Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1742-5573/1/3 

In 1965, Austin Bradford Hill worked on a paper that has become a standard in public health and epidemiologic study about how to make decisions based on epidemiologic evidence. Hill put forth strategies for inferring causation and stressed the need for considering costs and benefits when planning health-promoting interventions. Review this article, which examines how Hill’s strategies are often misused or misinterpreted.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). CDC health disparities and inequalities report—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Supplement, (60), 1–114. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/su6001.pdf. [Read pages 11–32]

This report consolidates national data on disparities in mortality, morbidity, behavioral risk factors, health care access, preventive health services, and social determinants of critical health problems in the United States by using selected indicators. The required section of reading introduces the social determinants of health and environmental hazards.

World Health Organization. (2011). Social determinants of health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/social_determinants/en/

According to the World Health Organization, “The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for health inequities—the unfair and avoidable differences in health status seen within and between countries.” This article presents an introduction to social determinants of health.

World Health Organization. (2011). Social determinants of health: Key concepts. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/social_determinants/thecommission/finalreport/key_concepts/en/index.html

This article outlines key concepts related to the social determinants of health.

Healthy People 2020. (2011). Social determinants of health. Retrieved from http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=39

This website presents an overview of the social determinants of health and addresses how the information relates to Healthy People 2020.

UCL Institute of Health Equity. (2012). ‘Fair society healthy lives’ (The Marmot Review). Retrieved from http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/projects/fair-society-healthy-lives-the-marmot-review

Optional Resources

Genaidy, A. M., Lemasters, G. K., Lockey, J., Succop, P., Deddens, J., Sobeih, & Dunning, K. (2007). An epidemiological appraisal instrumental – a tool for evaluation of epidemiological studies. Ergonomics, 50(6), 920–960.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Social determinants of health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/

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Population Health: Healthcare-Associated Infections

Anne Marie WouapetName

Walden UniversitySchool

NURS 8310 Section 03, Epidemiology and Population HealthClass

March 18, 2018Date

Well done

5/5

Healthcare-Associated Infections

Healthcare-Associated infections (HAI) are infections acquired by patients in the course of receiving medical or surgical care. In modern healthcare, there are many procedures and invasive techniques that are meant to improve the health of patients. However, some of these healthcare procedures may put the patients at the risk of infection, such as………… HAIs are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in healthcare institutions in the United States (Sievert et al., 2013). Additionally, these infections have led to an increased cost of healthcare. HAIs occur in various healthcare settings such as surgical centers, acute care centers, long-term care facilities, and even outpatient centers. There is need to improve the quality of care to reduce and possibly completely eradicate HAIs to enhance the quality of healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to discuss HAIs as a population health problem and develop a research topic on this health issue.

About Healthcare-Associated Infections

Person

All people who visit healthcare facilities for medical or surgical treatment can acquire HAIs. However, there are some groups of people that are at a greater risk than others. The elderly population is at the highest risk of acquiring HAIs because of their increasing immune deficiencies (Sievert et al., 2013). The elderly people’s deteriorating immune system makes them more susceptible to infections by pathogens that are commonly found in the healthcare environment.

Place

HAIs have been reported in every state in the United States. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has two HAI surveillance programs that track the rate of infections in all U.S. states and records the trends. According to CDC reports from 2015, at least 1 in every 25 patients acquire infections in the healthcare setting (Umscheid et al., 2011). These infections are most prevalent in specific areas of healthcare such as surgical sites and intensive care units.

Time

The occurrence of HAIs is not seasonal. Patients are at the risk of acquiring infections at any time of the year provided they are exposed to an environment containing the pathogens that could cause the infections to occur. However, patients are at a greater risk at a time when they are undergoing surgical procedures or during antibiotic use.

The significance of this Health Problem

HAI is one

NURS 8310: Epidemiology and Population Health

Major Assessment Overview

Major Assessment 7: Using an Epidemiological Approach to Critically Analyze a Population Health Issue

Write a 12- to 15-page paper that addresses the following:

Section 1: The Problem (developed as Assignment 2; submitted at the end of Week 6)

· A brief outline of the environment you selected (i.e., home, workplace, school)

· A summary of your selected population health problem in terms of person, place, and time, and the magnitude of the problem based on data from appropriate data resources (Reference the data resources you used.)

· Research question/hypothesis

Section 2: Research Methods (developed as Assignment 2; submitted at the end of Week 6)

· The epidemiologic study design you would use to assess and address your population health problem.

· Assessment strategies (i.e., if you were conducting a case-control study, how would you select your cases and controls? Regarding the methods and tools you would use to make these selections, how is it convenient for you as the researcher or as the investigator to use this tool?)

· Summary of the data collection activities (i.e., how you would collect data—online survey, paper/pen, mailing, etc.)

Section 3: The Intervention (developed as Assignment 3; submitted at the end of Week 8)

· An outline of an intervention you would implement to address the population health problem with your selected population based on the results of the study in Section 2. Note: If you selected a descriptive study design, you are still required to outline an intervention that might be developed based on future research on.

· A review of the literature that supports this intervention

Section 4: The Impact (developed as Assignment 3; submitted at the end of Week 8)

· An explanation of the health outcome you would be seeking and the social impact of solving this issue

Section 5: Evaluation (developed as Assignment 4; submitted at the end of Week 9)

· An evaluation plan based upon the health outcome that you have chosen and your anticipated results

The Final Paper (with feedback incorporated) is due by Day 3 of Week 11. This serves as your Major Assessment for this course.

Your written assignments must follow APA guidelines. Be sure to support your work with specific citations from appropriate Learning Resources and additional scholarly sources as appropriate. Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association to ensure that your in-text citations and reference list are correct.

© 2012 Laureate Education Inc.

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