Course reflection Crisis Intervention  Introduction (8 pts) 8% of total result 8 6 4 You Decide Reflection (80 pts) 80% of total result 80 69 58 Conclusion (4 pts) 4% of total result 4 2 1 Clarity of writing (6 pts) 6% of total result 6 4 2 APA format (2 pts) 2% of total result today 12/14/2020 before 11

1

Running head: HOW CAN PTSD BE TREATED

4

TREATMENT FOR PTSD

Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Institution

Name Zoraida Seoane

Lecturer Crisis Intervention

Date 09/23/2020

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an ailment triggered by a physical or emotionally tragic event (Foa et al., 2020). The symptoms may include dreams, flashbacks, mental or physical distress cued by situations similar to the event (Acute Stress Disorder). Other symptoms caused by ASD may consist of insomnia, lack of concentration, poor social skills, or lack of appetite. For example, an accident survivor may avoid using vehicles, thus slowing down daily activities like going to work. Though both children and adults can experience PTSD, the most affected people may include post-war veterans, sexual assault victims, and accident survivors.

PTSD treatment comes in many forms like medication, Cognitive Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Out of all these, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) stands as the most effective treatment, in my opinion. CBT is the psycho-social therapy given to patients to battle the malicious thought process that distorts functionality (David et al., 2018). This method can not only be used for PTSD but also for a variety of mental disorders like depression and anxiety. We can further subdivide CBT into various types.

Firstly, Cognitive Processing Therapy is used to help the patient understand and reconceptualize the traumatic event to reduce ongoing negative effects. This method begins by educating the patient about the reasons behind this approach. The patient is then requested to re-manifest the event in detail through writing or verbal explanation. After this, the patient, with the doctor’s help, come up with modified beliefs regarding the event. This treatment method is only administered to emotionally stable patients as it uses a more head-on approach to resolve the situation.

Another form of CBT is Habit Reversal Training. HBT addresses the unwanted repetitive behaviors or habits developed from the traumatic experience. These may include twitchy neck or biting nails. In this case, patients go through awareness training where a patient tries to identify repetitive habits. The therapist then recommends behaviors that the patient can use to counter bad habits, known as Competing Response Training. The patient is also exposed to motivation, such as listing a set of goals to achieve or being around people who can encourage improvement (Salimi et al., 2016). Relaxation training is also used to reduce stress, which is seen as a major caus

1

Running head: TREATMENT FOR PTSD

2

TREATMENT FOR PTSD

Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Institution

Name Zoraida Seoane

Lecturer Crisis Intervention

Date 09/23/2020


Most Effective Treatment for PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder triggered by a physical or emotionally tragic event. (Foa et al., 2020) The symptoms may include dreams, flashbacks, mental or physical distress cued by situations similar to the event (Acute Stress Disorder). Other symptoms caused by ASD may consist of insomnia, lack of concentration, poor social skills, or lack of appetite. For example, an accident survivor may avoid using vehicles, thus slowing down daily activities like going to work. Though both children and adults can experience PTSD, the most affected people may include post-war veterans, sexual assault victims, and accident survivors.

PTSD treatment comes in many forms like medication, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, prolonged exposure therapy, and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Out of all these, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) stands as the most effective treatment, in my opinion. CBT is the psycho-social therapy given to patients to battle the malicious thought process that distorts functionality (David et al., 2018). This method can not only be used for PTSD but also for a variety of mental disorders like depression and anxiety. We can further subdivide CBT into various types.

Firstly, Cognitive Processing Therapy is used to help the patient understand and reconceptualize the traumatic event to reduce ongoing negative effects. This method begins by educating the patient about the reasons behind this approach. The patient is then requested to re-manifest the event in detail through writing or verbal explanation. After this, the patient, with the doctor’s help, come up with modified beliefs regarding the event. This treatment method is only administered to emotionally stable patients as it uses a more head-on approach to resolve the situation.

Another form of CBT is Habit Reversal Training. HBT addresses the unwanted repetitive behaviors or habits developed from the traumatic experience. These may include twitchy neck or biting nails. In this case, patients go through awareness training where a patient tries to identify repetitive habits. The therapist then recommends behaviors that the patient can use to counter bad habits, known as Competing Response Training. The patient is also exposed to motivation, such as listing a set of goals to achieve or being around people who can encourage improvement. (Salimi et al.,

Running Head: IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOEDUCATION IN COMBATING COVID-19 1

IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOEDUCATION IN COMBATING COVID-19 6

Discussion Week 2: Crisis Intervention

University Florida National University

Name Zoraida Seoane

Lecturer Crisis Intervention

Date 09/07/2020

Introduction

Corona Virus Disease (Covid-19) is a highly infectious disease declared a global health emergency in January 2020 by the World Health Organization (Roser et al., 2020). This pandemic has rapidly spread across the world since the first case was reported in China. The impacts of Covid-19 have caused a considerable degree of fear, concern, and worry, especially among the aged generation and those living with underlying medical conditions (Roser et al., 2020). Since no vaccine or cure was invented against the pandemic, death toll and infection cases rose after the outbreak. This has caused social disruptions by changing the usual ways of life and the worldwide economic crisis.Covid-19 has mentally and psychologically affected the general population regarding cognitive capacity and emotions (Motlova et al., 2017). Authorities around the world have been seeking alternative resolution measures such as Psychoeducation to combat Covid-19. Psychoeducation establishes systematic, broad, relevant, and updated info about a condition or a disease, including its diagnostic and treatment process. The paper discusses how Psycho-education has been used to contribute to the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic.

Through Psychoeducation, factual information about Covid-19 has been provided (Motlova et al., 2017). During the initial phases, the pandemic was faced with myths and misconceptions. For example, claims were being spread that 5G network technology caused covid-19, and drinking breaches and disinfectants could cure the pandemic (Okunlola et al., 2020). These unverified claims caused fear among the public, but factual information about the Corona Virus has been relayed through Psychoeducation. For instance, about how Covid-19 spreads and measures to minimize the spread. Gradually, people have learned to avoid physical contact while keeping social distancing.

Different aspects of living with illnesses have been communicated to family members and relatives treated with Covid-19 symptoms through Psychoeducation. Just like during the initial phases of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, patients of Covid-19 and their families faced social stigma (Ho et al., 2020). The social stigma was high among family members, but through Psychoeducation, Covid-19 victims have learned how to manage the infection with interventio

Running head: PSYCHOLOGY 1

PSYCHOLOGY 2

Family Crisis Intervention

Student’s Name Zoraida Seoane

Institutional Affiliations FNU

Infidelity

Families go through different problems associated with social and economic factors. One of the problems leading to family crisis and divorce is infidelity. Infidelity is a situation where one of the partners in a relationship marriage is unfaithful. Many people do not take infidelity lightly causing a strain in a relationship (Bahnaru & Runcan, 2019). Infidelity is devastating because one feels betrayed by a person who should be very important. Although infidelity ends relationships, other couples manage to repair the relationship even after unfaithfulness. The partners repair some relationships while others need a therapist to intervene. According to research, relationships that survive infidelity and seek help from a therapist become stronger (Momeni et al. 2018). People regard infidelity differently. Some people may find their partner watching porn and refer to that as cheating, but most of them refer to having sexual affairs outside wedlock as infidelity. Therefore, to solve the issues of unfaithfulness, couples should understand how it hurts a relationship.


Effects of Infidelity on Family

Infidelity has several negative effects on the family. First, both the infidel and the partner lose trust between them, which is fundamental for a long time relationship. Many times cheaters blame their acts on their partner, but their actions cannot be justified. Secondly, people respond differently to emotional pain including property damage (Momeni et al. 2018). In the past, cases of a person burning his or her house after finding out the partner cheated have been common. Property damage can hurt the family. Next, children are the main loser of a family that is struggling with infidelity. As mentioned earlier, infidelity can end a relationship. If a relationship is blessed with children, they will suffer the effects of a broken family (Bahnaru & Runcan, 2019). Sometimes, children blame themselves for family problems, which may harm their psychological and social affairs. Individuals who have gone through a divorce due to infidelity may have an emotional scar that may affect getting into another relationship.



Intervention

Different interventions can be used to address the issue of

Community Nursing-

Crisis intervention 6

Community Nursing

Zoraida Seoane

Florida National University

Professor Lysis Camacho

Lillian Wald, organizer of the Henry Street Settlement (1893) in New York City, developed the term general wellbeing nursing to put accentuation on the network estimation of the medical attendant whose work was based upon a comprehension of the apparent multitude of issues that perpetually went with the ills of poor people. Wald’s training among the wiped out poor immediately persuaded her that their infections regularly came about because of causes past a person’s control and that therapies should have been recommended in an overall manner with thought for the social, financial, and clinical parts of each case. By seeing nursing practice from the patient’s perspective, empowering individual and open duty, and giving a bringing together structure to the conveyance of thorough, similarly accessible medicinal services, Wald conceptualized another worldview for nursing practice.

Regardless of whether a patient’s issues were separated and surprising or basic to numerous was, as indicated by Wald, imperative to know in light of the fact that the way toward discovering the response to this inquiry frequently drove sensibly to ID of a suitable cure. Wald’s vision brought about nursing practice that went past just thinking about patients and their families during disease to include a plan of change in social insurance, industry, instruction, diversion, and lodging.

What Wald called “our venture of general wellbeing nursing” was not a disconnected endeavor, nor was she a solitary American champion. Her worldview for nursing practice depended on information picked up during twenty years of involvement with visiting nursing and owed a lot to Progressive change and the general wellbeing development of the turn of the century. Despite the fact that Wald encapsulated the professionalization of visiting nursing, due credit should likewise be concurred the large number of medical caretakers the nation over who legitimated the act of nursing in the network.

References
C.-E.A. Winslow. “The Untilled Fields of Public Health.” Science, 51 (9 January, 1920): 23-33. Karen Buhler-Wilkerson, “Bringing Care to the People: Lillian Wald’s Legacy to Public Health Nursing,” American Journal of Public Health, 83 (December 1993): 1778­­–86.

Karen Buhler-Wilkerson, “Public Health Nursing: In Sickness or in Health?” American Journal of Public Health, 75 (October 1985): 1155–61.

1

Running head: HEALTHCARE 1

HEALTHCARE 2

Social Determinants Obstacle to Home-Based Care

Student’s Name Zoraida Seoane

Institutional Affiliations FNU

Social Determinants

Health is one of the most expensive elements of human beings. People try to ensure that there is good health in their environments such as homes, workplace, schools, neighborhoods and communities. Individuals make effort to remain healthy such as not smoking, eating a balanced diet and exercise among others (Healthy people, 2020). However, it is not possible to prevent oneself from all the risk factors in a given environment. Natural calamities are examples of situations when unhealthy circumstance cannot be avoided. Thus, it is important to understand social determinants and ways they affect home care, case and case management. According to healthy people 2020, the five areas covering social determinant include Economic stability, education, social and community context, health and health care as well as neighborhood and built environment (Healthy people, 2020). However, determinants that direct limit home care, case and case management are economic stability, neighborhood and built environment as well as community context.

Economic stability

The economic status of a person determines the ability to pay for home care, case and case management. People that have good jobs can pay for themselves or their family members under home-based care. Food security is achieved when a person has a well-paying job and it is only after affording food that one can pay for other health-related services (Healthy people, 2020). Homeless people due to their economic status do not have a place where home care, case and case management can happen. Nurses who are in the frontline in home-based care need to be paid and poverty can be a barrier to home care, case and case management.

Social and Community Context

The social and community context makes up the external environment of a person. People have been facing various problems dealing with society, where they live. Issues such as discrimination have been affecting home care, case and case management for the minorities in the given community (Healthy people, 2020). Therefore, a minority may suffer when an organization refuse to offer their services or when they are not offered quality healthcare services. Social cohesion also affects people’s ability to get home care, case and case management. Communities have been failing to ensure social and health welfare for all the members.

Neighborhood and Built Environment

A neighborhood represents the environm

Running head: EPIDEMIOLOGY 1

EPIDEMIOLOGY 4

Epidemiology

Author’s Name: Zoraida Seoane

Institutional Affiliation: Florida National University

Course : Community Nurse

i) Is Jeff at risk? If so, for what?

Yes- because he has increased rate of obesity, which means he is subjected to obesity and related chronic diseases which is almost familiar to children and youth who live in urban areas. (Corvalán,2008). Jeff has a risk for the number of conditions, including the following: diabetes- type 2 diabetes was mostly known as adult-onset. Diabetes nowadays is a challenge to young children and adolescents research which was done by Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) got an estimation of 1 in 3 children born in 2000 will get diabetes in future. Heart disease mostly atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries) research has shown it begins in the early stage of children and also adolescent with risk factors. These diseases mostly lead to a heart attack which can be a cause of death. High blood pressure, also known as Hypertension, is caused by overweight due to straining of the heart. Metabolic syndrome- between 25 to 40 percent who have overweight are likely to suffer from these diseases, which includes: abnormal lipids, high blood pressure, insulin resistance and obesity.

ii) Utilizing the Guidelines for High Blood Pressure in Adults (American College of Cardiology, 2017), what is Jeff’s future risk from adolescence through adulthood?

Jeff has the following risk in adulthood: Hypertension which highly leads to death. The research was done in 2010 by the United States, which gives evidence that high BP is leading to death and disability-adjusted life-years worldwide and also had more CVD death than any other form of CVD risk factor. Even 50 percent of death from coronary heart diseases (CHD) and also stroke occurred to people with Hypertension. In North, Manhattan study has shown that a high number of women (32%) affected to Hypertension compared to men (19%) (Aboyans,2012). Epidemiological studies have also carried out research which shows high levels of both the SBP and DPB are mostly associated with CVD risk but independently.

iii) How do epidemiologic data define Hypertension in a child of Jeff’s age?

Defining blood pressure of a child who is Jeff’s age has been described as the elevation as ≥95th percentile (Daniels,2016). Use of percentile instead of absolute blood pressure measurement is most important to young children because of blood pressure change with growth and development during childhood, mostly during puber

Running head: WEEK 11 CRISIS INTERVENTION 1

WEEK 11 CRISIS INTERVENTION 4


Week 11 Crisis Intervention

Student Name Zoraida Seoane

Institution FNU

Violent Behavior in Institutions

The aggression that human service employees face is persistent in the community and it contributes to the rise of crime rates. Violence in the work place may be classified as whichever violent act against property or a person (Abderhalden et al., 2016). Regarding behavior, the aggression frequently leads to harassments, threats, intimidating actions, or other disruptive actions. There are several precipitating factors regarding violent behavior in institutions. These factors allude to particular triggers or events regarding the inception of the present problem. Some of the key factors include substance abuse, deinstitutionalization, and mental illness, among others. Substance abuse is among the main causes of aggressive behaviors against workers. This is particularly so due to the hostile nature regarding substance abusers (Andersen & Teicher, 2015). Drug abuse including alcohol, can interfere with the brain system hence causing an individual on high risk to get involved in violent and aggressive behavior. Narcotics, psychomotor stimulants, alcohol, and hallucinogens, considerably diverge from one another in the manner in which they relate to different types of aggressive and violent behavior.

Mental illness is another major precipitating factor. According to research regarding mental cases, a large number exhibit violent behavior. Patients who have conditions linked to mental sickness, for instance head injuries, brain illnesses, and dementia, have the probability of being aggressive towards the professionals who attend to them (Abderhalden et al., 2016). Patients suffering from personality disorders also exhibit violent behavior due to their anger.

Deinstitutionalization is another factor that increases the level of violence against mental health workforce (Fakhourya & Priebe, 2017). Previously, there used to be controlled environments in managing mental and violent cases. However, due to deinstitutionalization, the establishment of various institutions which handle mental cases for instance daycare, and warehouse amenities has taken place. Majority of these establishments lack adequate members of staff and appropriate follow up with regard to care. Consequently, this situation has created an environment for increased aggression by patients towards professionals.

References

Abderhalden, C., Needham, I., Dassen, T., Halfens, R., Haug, H., Fischer, J. (2016). Structured risk assessment and violence in acute psychiatric wards: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychi

Running head: SEXUAL ASSAULTS THERAPY TO CHILDREN 1

SEXUAL ASSAULTS THERAPY TO CHILDREN 2

Sexual assault therapy to children

Student name Zoraida Seoane

Professor’s name Lysis Camacho

Date10/05/2020

Sexual assault therapy to a child is providing counseling to children who have been sexually abused. The counseling is done by a professional counselor who provides guidelines that will help the victim to overcome the trauma. A violent sexual act to both children and adults is a criminal offense, and perpetrators pay heavily for the crime. A person doing counseling for children to use the following steps.

The counselor starts by creating a harmonious relationship with the victim, which builds confidence in the counselor’s victims. It may take two to three sessions to build this connection. At this stage, a counselor should be able to understand and share the feelings of the victim. Empathy will bring the victim closer to the counselor, and the victim will open up quickly to the counselor. Once the client accepts the counselor, the counselor can move into the next approach. (Tolliday, Spangaro, & Laing, 2018)

In most cases, sexually assaulted persons lose self-confidence; they lose trust in people around them and feels worthless. At this stage, the counselor should develop a strategy to help the victim gain self-esteem and learn to love themselves. The counselor should help the victim to bring into perspective positive things about the victim. At this stage, the victim should make to accept herself and know that all is not lost. It is also essential to know which activities the victim enjoys doing and incorporate them during therapy. These activities help reduce stress on the victim (Elliott, 1994).

Recognition of irrational thoughts is identified in the third step. Recognition of irrational thoughts will be achieved by giving assignments that will help the victim her thoughts and feelings. Once the exaggerated ideas are identified, the counselor starts working on the negative reviews to bring positive thoughts. Where a victim believes that her family dislikes her, the counselor will work toward convincing her otherwise.

The fourth step invites the client to take personal responsibility in healing. The victim is help on how to take care of their emotions. The victim can now know how her body reacts when anxiety strikes and so forth. At this point, the counselor should develop strategies that will keep the victim-focused on all her five senses. This focus will help the client identify things that are important to her and those that are not.

The fifth step gives results of the healing of the patient; it can be

Chapter Twelve: Personal Loss: Bereavement and Grief

Terms Critical to Understanding Loss

Bereavement

Uncomplicated bereavement

Grief

Complicated grief/prolonged grief

Traumatic grief

Disenfranchised grief

Loss

Primary loss

Secondary loss

Ambiguous loss

Mourning

Dynamics of Bereavement

Cultural Dynamics

Culture

3 patterns of response:

Death accepting

Death defying

Death denying

Sociocultural Mores

Spirituality and Religion

Conceptual Approaches to Bereavement

Stage/Phase Models

Kubler-Ross’s Stages

Bowlby’s Attachment Theory

Schneider’s Growth Model

Counterpart to Traditional Models

Dual Process Model

Loss orientation

Restoration orientation

Adaptive Model

Intuitive grieving Instrumental grieving

Assessment Tools

Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG)

Current Grief

Past Disruption

Grief Experience Inventory (GEI)

Nine clinical scales

Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist (HGRC)

Can discriminate variability in the grieving process as a function of cause of death and time elapsed since death

Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)

Targets symptoms of grief that are distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, and predicts long-term functional impairments

Types of Loss

Death of a Spouse

One of the most emotionally stressful and disruptive events in life

More widows than widowers

Loss Due to Caregiving

Death of a Child

Perhaps the ultimate loss for a person to endure regardless of the age of the child

Types of Loss Cont.

Bereavement in Childhood

Toddlers

Primary school age

Middle school age

Intervention and treatment

Bereavement in Adolescence

Value of connectedness

Intervention and treatment

Bereavement in the Elderly

Present more somatic problems than psychological problems

No indication that the intensity of grief varies significantly with age

Grief among older people may be more prolonged than among younger people

Tend to be lonelier and to have far longer periods of loneliness than younger people

Types of Loss Cont.

HIV/AIDS

Job Loss

Separation and Divorce

Death of a Pet

Complicated Grief

Traumatic grief

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1

Running head: TREATMENT FOR PTSD

2

TREATMENT FOR PTSD

Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Institution

Name Zoraida Seoane Lecturer Crisis Intervention Date 09/23/2020

Most Effective Treatment for PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder triggered by a physical or emotionally tragic event. (Foa et al., 2020) The symptoms may include dre