What is the purpose of the research study?  What is the purpose of the study?  Be specific in identifying the research question(s).

Is the review of literature in the article comprehensive, current, and focused on the research question?

YouTube video on qualitative and quantitative research.  This will assist you in this week and future in construction your dicussions and your paper.  Link (Links to an external site.)Quant vs Qual Research

The following are the three articles: The one I have chosen is in bold please read and answer questions according to each article. 

1. Fujisawa H., Kumasaka, T. & Arakida,M. (2019). Influence of animal assisted therapy using dog for patients with stroke and examination of nursing care. International Medical Journal26(2), 126–134.

2. Yordy, M. (2020). Animal-assisted therapy: Promoting a healthy work environment. Nursing Management51(4), 24–30. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NUMA.0000657248.63754.fc (Links to an external site.)

3. Oyan de Moraes, V. C., & Spiri, W. C. (2019). Development of a journal club on the nursing management process. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem72, 221–227. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0019

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

By Morgan Yordy, DNP, RN-BC, ACNS-BC;
Amy Brandon, MSN, RN, CCRN-K, ACNS-BC, NEA-BC;
and Lisa Harmon, BSN, RN, NE-BC, PCCN


Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has the potential to benefit employees, as well as patients, in the healthcare environment;
however, there can be misconceptions about AAT
that may create barriers to implementing this
strategy. Negative stereotypes include perceptions
that animals in the healthcare environment cause
disruptions, such as barking, biting, or infection
risk. This may lead to a mismatch between beliefs
about the effectiveness of AAT and using it to
provide support for the healthcare teams who
work in high-stress environments. The primary
purpose of this study was to gauge the care team’s
perceptions of AAT in the inpatient and outpatient
healthcare setting before and after exposure to AAT
experiences to provide nurse leaders with evidence
to support AAT as a coping strategy to address
staff stress and burnout.


Promoting a
healthy work

www.nursingmanagement.com Nursing Management • April 2020 25

April 30

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Animal-assisted therapy

26 April 2020 • Nursing Management www.nursingmanagement.com

Background and significance
Stress is a commonly cited fac-
tor associated with job reten-
tion, with many nurses willing
to leave the profession due to
workplace stress.1-3 In addition,
nurses may have an increased
risk of obesity, anxiety, and
depression and may even
exhibit symptoms of posttrau-
matic stress disorder.4-7 This
heightened level of stress links
nurses to declining health,
dependence on medications
and caffeine, and injuries
related to overexertion and
burnout.8-10 Nursing is a high-
stress profession that may lead
to negative psychological

effects. Nurse managers and
administration need to focus on
affordable and attainable meth-
ods to decrease workplace
stress to retain a resilient work-

Animal-assisted intervention
(AAI) is a broad term used to
describe the goal-oriented use
of animals in settings such as
health, education, and therapy.
AAT is a type of AAI in which
health service professionals use
licensed animals to assist indi-
viduals to reach their specific
goals.11 Current evidence has
demonstrated the positive effects
of AAT for patients and health-
care personnel in a multitude of
settings, such as clinics, hospital
units, schools, and behavioral
health programs.

Healthy work environment
tactics using pets can minimize
absenteeism, decrease staff
turnover, and promote moral
resilience.12 This can lead to
improved care delivery, fewer




Rev Bras Enferm [Internet]. 2019;72(Suppl 1):221-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0019

Objective: To develop a journal club on management topics in Nursing. Method: Action
research, adopting content analysis as methodological reference and the journal club
strategy. 12 nursing managers of a public hospital in the state of São Paulo participated
from August to November 2016. Results: data showed the participation of nurses in
the journal club in five meetings planned collectively with the following topics: “aspects
regarding organization”, with the subtopics “planning”, “work process”, “structure” and
“people management”; and the topic “aspects regarding the team”, with the subtopics
“autonomy”, “behavior/attitude”, “awareness” and “social problems”. Conclusion: The
study showed the comprehensiveness of topics the journal club can address regarding
management, and how scientific basis is important in the daily life of nursing managers
to improve quality of care and the ability to manage.
Descriptors: Evidence-Based Nursing; Nursing Research; Practice Management; Education,
Nursing, Continuing; Qualitative Research.

Objetivo: Desenvolver um clube de leitura sobre temas de gerenciamento em enfermagem.
Método: Pesquisa-ação, adotando-se a análise de conteúdo como referencial metodológico
e a estratégia do clube de leitura. Participaram 12 gerentes de enfermagem de um hospital
público do estado de São Paulo no período de agosto a novembro de 2016. Resultados:
os dados revelaram a participação dos enfermeiros no clube de leitura em cinco encontros
planejados coletivamente e cujos temas foram: “aspectos referentes à organização”, com
os subtemas “planejamento”, “processo de trabalho”, “estrutura” e “gestão de pessoas”; e
o tema “aspectos referentes à equipe”, com os subtemas “autonomia”, “comportamento/
atitude”, “sensibilização” e “problemas sociais”. Conclusão: O estudo mostrou a abrangência
de temas que o clube de leitura pode abordar em relação ao gerenciamento e o quanto
o embasamento científico é importante no cotidiano dos gerentes de enfermagem para
melhorar a qualidade da assistência e a capacidade para gerenciar.
Descritores: Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências; Pesquisa em Enfermagem; Gerenciamento
da Prática Profissional; Educação Continuada em Enfermagem; Pesquisa Qualitativa.

Objetivo: Desarrollar un club de lectura sobre temas de gestión en enfermería. Método:
Investigación-acción, adoptando el análisis de contenido como referencial metodológico
y como la estrategia del club de lectura. Participaron 12 gerentes de enfermería de un
hospital público del estado de São Paulo en el período de agosto a noviembre del 2016.
Resultados: los datos revelaron la participación de los enfermeros en el club de lectura en
cinco encuentros planeados colectiv

126 International Medical Journal Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 126 – 134 , April 2019


Influence of Animal Assisted Therapy Using Dog for Patients
with Stroke and Examination of Nursing Care

Hiroko Fujisawa0, Takayuki Kumasaka”, Mikako Arakida2)


Purpose: Japan’s ageing society exhibits high rates of cerebrovascular disease. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) for patients
with stroke may be an effective means by previous research. The objective of this study was to examine the nursing care effects
of AAT, using dogs handled by nurses, with patients following stroke.

Method: 23 patients underwent mood examinations before and after AAT. Additionally, we measured changes in physical
function, the total time required for each behaviour during AAT, and nursing outcomes over the 4-week experimental period.

Results: At baseline, between weeks 1 and 4, and post-AAT we observed no statistically significant between-group differences
in ‘change in mood’ and ‘behaviour during AAT’d Both the AAT group and the waiting group exhibited significant change in
FIM and S1AS scores between weeks 1 and 4. The AAT group exhibited a significant change over the study period, compared
with the waiting group on the Nursing outcomes Classification (NOC) index.

Conclusion: There was a significant improvement in nursing outcomes as assessed by NOC indices. AAT is an effective
means of delivering nursing care for patients with stroke.


animal assisted therapy, stroke, nursing care, dog, alternative therapy


Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is an adjunctive therapy and alterna­
tive therapy, carried out by medical staff, involving contact between ani­
mals and patients in medical settings. AAT seeks to improve patient
independence and adaptation, emotional stability, sense of autonomy
and motivation and socialisation while helping patients acquire social
and daily routine skills. A key component of AAT is recovery of the
patient’s basic life rhythm by utilising his or her relationship with living
things* 1 2’3′.

AAT is practised throughout Europe and the United States, in hospi­
tals and other medical facilities, with patients ranging in age from very
young to elderly, with acute to chronic disease profiles. Current esti­
mates indicate that AAT reduces medical costs by approximately 3 to 7
million dollars4’”. In contrast, animal-assisted activity (AAA) is used in
Japan. The results of these programmes are occasionally reported as
AAT in Japan: however, the Companion Animal Partnership Program
and AAA differ from AAT and, in actuality, AAT (as it occurs in Europe
and the United States) is not used in Japan1″’20’. In Japan, For people who
enjoy the company of animals, AAT may serve as an effective adjuvant/
alternative therapy, with more an emphasis on sustained patient activity,