Health Promotion and Risk Reduction

Cultural Diversity and Community Nursing

Environmental Health

Read chapter 4, 13, and 14 of the class textbooks and review the attached PowerPoint presentations.  Once done answer the following questions;

  1.  Discuss various theories of health promotion, including Pender’s Health Promotion Model, The Health Belief Model, the Transtheoretical Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action.
  2.  List and discuss health behaviors for health promotion and disease prevention.
  3.  Apply and discuss the principles of transcultural nursing to community health nursing.
  4. Apply and discuss the basic concepts of critical theory to environmental health nursing problems.

As stated in the syllabus, present your assignment in an APA format word document, Arial 12 font attached to the forum in the discussion tab of the blackboard titled “Week 4 discussion questions,” and the SafeAssign exercise in the assignment tab of the blackboard which is a mandatory requirement.  A minimum of 2 evidence-based references (besides the class textbook) are required. References can’t be more than five years old.  You must post two replies on different dates to any of your peers sustained with the proper references no older than five years old and make sure the references are quoted properly in your assignment. You can’t post the replies on the same day, and I must see different dates in the replies to verify attendance.   

The assignment consists of 4 questions, please make sure you enumerate the questions on your assignment.  An essay-style assignment won’t be accepted. 

You must quote the references in the assignment; if not, it is considered plagiarism.

A minimum of 800 words is required (excluding the first and reference page).  Please make sure to follow the instructions as given and use either spell-check or Grammarly before you post your assignment.

Chapter 14

Environmental Health

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Environmental Health Is …

… all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person and all the related factors impacting behaviors.

… encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health.

… targeted toward preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments.

– WHO (2013)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Environmental Health

The purpose of environmental health is to ensure the conditions of human health and provide healthy environments for people to live, work, and play.

Accomplished through…

Risk assessment

Prevention

Intervention

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Using a Critical Theory Approach

Uses “thinking upstream” framework.

Raises questions about oppressive situations.

Involves community members in the definition and solution of problems.

Facilitates interventions that reduce health-damaging effects of environments.

Asks critical questions about clients’ work and home environments to help discern the contributions of specific hazards to health.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Benefits of an Environmental Health History

Increased awareness of environmental/ occupational factors

Improved timelines and accuracy of diagnosis

Prevents disease and aggravation of conditions

Identifies potential work-related environmental hazards and/or environmental hazards in and around clients’ homes

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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I PREPARE
Environmental Exposure History

I – Investigate potential exposures

P – Present work

R – Residence

E – Environmental concerns

P – Past work

A – Activities

R – Referrals and Resources

E – Educate

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Figure 14-1

From U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Healthy People 2010, ed 2, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Areas of Environmental Health

Built environment

Wo

Chapter 13

Cultural Diversity and Community Health Nursing

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

1

Cultural Competence

Cultural competence is respecting and understanding the values and beliefs of a certain cultural group so that one can function effectively in caring for members of that cultural group.

Culturally competent community health nursing requires that the nurse understand…

Lifestyle

Value system

Health and illness behaviors of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2

Standards of Practice for Culturally Competent Nursing Care

Social Justice

Critical Reflection

Knowledge of Cultures

Culturally Competent Practice

Cultural Competence in Health Care Systems and Organizations

Patient Advocacy and Empowerment

Multicultural Workforce

Education and Training in Culturally Competent Care

Cross-Cultural Communication

Cross-Cultural Leadership

Policy Development

Evidence-Based Practice and Research

From: Expert Panel on Global

Nursing and Health (2010)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3

Population Trends

In 1970

Minority groups were 16% of population

By 2010

Minority groups increased to 36% of population

By 2025

More than half of all children will be minorities

By 2050

More than 54% of total population will be minorities

First time in U.S. history that minorities will make up a majority of the population

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4

4

Population Trends (Cont.)

By 2060, projected demographic trends:

White 44%

Hispanic 30%

African American 15%

Asian 9%

American Indians & Alaska Natives 2%

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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5

Immigration to the United States

Since 1991, more than 13 million legal immigrants

In 2010, almost 40 million foreign-born individuals in the United States (12.9% of population) from:

Latin America 53.1%

Asia 28.2%

Europe 12.1%

Other regions 9%

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Diversity Among Nurses

Minorities are generally underrepresented by nursing workforce (HRSA, 2009):

Chapter 4

Health Promotion and Risk Reduction

.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Health Promotion Is…

…any combination of health education and related organizational, economic, and environmental supports for behavior of individuals, groups, or communities conducive to health (Green & Kreuter, 1991)

…that which is motivated by the desire to increase well-being and to reach the best possible health potential (Parse, 1990)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2

Health Protection Is …(Cont.)

… those behaviors in which one engages with the specific intent to prevent disease, detect disease in the early stages, or maximize health within the constraints of disease (Parse, 1990)

… an important step in maintaining health

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3

Defining Health

The way health is defined has shifted from a focus on the curative model, to a focus on multidimensional aspects such as the social, cultural, and environmental facets of life and health (Benson, 1996)

Health is viewed not only as an important goal, but as a resource for living (WHO, 1986)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Healthy People 2020 …

… is the health promotion initiative for the nation.

… challenges individuals, communities, and professionals … to take specific steps to ensure that good health, as well as long life, are enjoyed by all.

– U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, 2012

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Healthy People 2020 …
(Cont.)

Broad goals

Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.

Achieve high equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.

Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.

Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Determinants of Health

Biology

Behaviors

Social environment

Physical environment

Policies and interventions

Access to high-quality health care

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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· Name

DQ Rubric 2019

· Description

· Rubric Detail

 

Levels of Achievement

Criteria

Proficient

Competent

Novice

Introduction and quality of discussion’s Argument

Weight 60.00%

100.00 %

It is consistent with application in research related to its context. Clarity of ideas. Comprehensive, in-depth and wide ranging.

70.00 %

The topic has a partially weak association to clarity of ideas and related topic. Relevant but not comprehensive.

15.00 %

Unable to address any part of the question and/or topic. Little relevance/some accuracy.

Objectivity of Tone, overall quality & Review of Literature in APA 6th format within past 7 years

Weight 10.00%

100.00 %

Tone is consistent, addressed professionally and objectively. Evidence in literature supports arguments.

70.00 %

The tone is not consistently objective. Some observations, some supportive evidence used.

15.00 %

No objectivity in tone. No evidence of literature review provided. Lacks evidence of critical analysis, poor to no use of supportive evidence.

Grammar / Writing Skills

Weight 7.50%

100.00 %

Excellent mechanics, sentence structure and organization with no grammatical mistakes.

70.00 %

Some grammatical lapses , uses emotional responses in lieu of relevant points.

0.00 %

Poor grammar, weak communication, lack of clarity.

Peer Reply #1

Weight 7.50%

100.00 %

Demonstrates an exceptional ability to analyze and synthesize student work, asks meaningful extending questions.

70.00 %

Some ability to meaningfully comment on other students work and ask meaningful questions.

0.00 %

No peer response

Peer Reply #2

Weight 7.50%

100.00 %

Demonstrates an exceptional ability to analyze and synthesize student work, asks meaningful extending questions.

70.00 %

Some ability to meaningfully comment on other students work and ask meaningful questions.

0.00 %

No Peer response

Overall APA Use

Weight 7.50%

100.00 %

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