• Review “Asthma” in Chapter 27 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different.
  • Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Be sure to explain the changes in the arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation.
  • Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.


Pathophysiological mechanisms of Exacerbating Acute and Chronic Asthma

Asthma alludes to a pulmonary condition that results into either a chronic or acute inflammation of the respiratory tubes coupled with a tightening of the smooth muscles of the respiratory tract. In some cases, episodes of bronchoconstriction will accompany it as well. Establishing the pathophysiological mechanism of each asthma is an important step in determining its exacerbation, diagnosis and prescribing treatment for the patient.

The pathophysiological exacerbation of chronic cancer is closely tied to the etiological aspect of persistent viruses and chlamydia. Viruses and other organisms play a huge part in providing the necessary conditions for asthma to thrive. The key mechanism in this exacerbation is the viral replication that results in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract triggering cytokine release, inflammation and the eventual large mucus production. However, the viral and chlamydia has does not result into sporadic changes in the arterial blood patterns. The asthma attack takes time and so blood PaO2 of 100 mm Hg will only fall slightly to around 85 mm Hg followed by a slight rise in the PH to 7.45 from its initial 7.40 (Casale et al 2016). Despite these processes being necessary for clearance of the viral infection, they are still super-imposed over the already existing inflammatory condition in the airways that ignites symptomatology instead. Furthermore, it means that the immune system is slowed down hence making it unable to clear the viruses. As a result, there is infiltration of the pulmonary vein which exacerbates asthma inflammation.

Dehydration plays a very a far wider role in acute exacerbation of asthma. Studies show that asthma has a close relation with the water levels in the body with regard to airway epithelial cells. This will from time to time contribute to a fraction of epithelial and edema damage coupled with hyper-responsiveness. However, this does not only result should it be exercised-induced asthma. According to Walsh, Sills and Arnold (2017), during asthma attack through dehydration, the arterial blood patterns exhibit very sharp changes in the blood PH which could rise to as high as 7.60 while the blood PaO2 reduces to very low levels within a short time as low as 40 mm Hg coupled with a sharp rise in PaCO2.

Acute asthma can also be triggered by a period of emotional stress grief and sorrow are upheavals to asthma symptoms exacerbations. Interestingly, greater anxiety has been noted to be common to asthma patients than hepatitis B Patients. The level of oxygen in the blood reduces very fast as the patient’s loose instant breath while the CO2 levels climbs up along with the PH levels in almost the same proportion. For instance in a study including 230 patients, 45% scored high on depression rat


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