Review the two attached articles:

Next, review the evidence you are collecting for your proposed study. Which theories have others cited? Are you seeing a common theme? Next construct a conceptual map (see p. 138 in your textbook). Use Microsoft Word or Microsoft PowerPoint and include this as an attachment. Be sure you have defined the concepts and included relational statements.

Do one page for the review and one page for the conceptual map.

APA Format

Running head: NURSING PROBLEM 1

NURSING PROBLEM 2


Nursing Problem

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Date

Specialization: Nursing Practitioner.

As a nursing practitioner, the major roles include the assessment of the needs of the patients. A nursing practitioner also orders and interprets test from laboratories, they do illness and disease diagnosis, medication prescription and formulate plans for treatment. There are a number of challenges that face the nurse in their field of practices. This paper will focus to discuss the hazards in the workspace of these practitioners. It will also seek to find a way of solving these challenge using innovative means.

The Problem of Interest

Hazard in The Nursing Field.

The nursing field of practice is one of the most dangerous places of working as one does work in a delicate environment where one is in the risks of being infected or even injuring oneself. Nurses are faced with a number of risks in daily job activities. Some of these hazards include injuries, flu germs, hand washing –related dermatitis and pathogens that are based in the blood among others.

According to the report produced by OSHA, about 5.6 million of 12.2 million workers are under the risk of being exposed to blood borne pathogens. This is a big number of health workers under the risk meaning that soon there will be a shortage of health nursing or health workers in general. Moreover, the rates of risks are higher in the health care industry than any other industries. This industry has registered around 35000 injuries covering different parts of the body. These range from the shoulders, hands, feet, and back. These statistics are according to the Bureau Labor Statistics (Gooch, 2015).

Apart from the acute injuries discussed, they also suffer harm exposed on their hands. From a recent study carried out in the University of Manchester, the health workers that follow protocols are 4.5 times exposed to skin damage risks. The report also reported up to 25 percent of cases of irritant contact dermatitis.

These individuals also get exposed to infectious diseases in their areas of practice. One of the most commonly contacted infection is Hepatitis B (HBV). This is infection can be contacted via blood contact, feces, saliva, and semen. This instrument of spreading the infection is in contact with the patient and also the needles (Gooch, 2015). Nursing practitioners also risk exposure to toxic subst

July 2014 | Volume 21 | Number 6 © RCN PUBLISHING / NURSE RESEARCHER34

Nurse Researcher

Introduction
THIS PAPER aims to help the researcher to
understand the nature of theoretical and conceptual
frameworks and how they can be used to help give
direction to a study, or be identified as an outcome.
The use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks is
part of research, but is relatively obscure among the
myriad of literature available. In published research
reports, there is often no explanation as to what
theoretical and conceptual frameworks are, and they
are mentioned in many popular research textbooks
at best minimally and often as terms in a glossary.
There appears to be no manual about how theoretical
and/or conceptual frameworks should be used.

This paper examines what the literature says
in relation to theoretical and/or conceptual
frameworks and considers how researchers seem
to be using them. It also shows how a conceptual
framework was used in case study research to
determine the professional jurisdictions of doctors
and nurses in the supply and prescription of
medicines, and ultimately to the development of
a conceptual model.

Definitions of frameworks
Fain (2004) defined theory as ‘an organised and
systematic set of interrelated statements (concepts)
that specify the nature of relationships between

Correspondence
Helen Elise Green
[email protected]

Helen Elise Green PhD is
director of student education
at the University of Leeds, UK

Peer review
This article has been subject
to double-blind review and
has been checked using
antiplagiarism software

Author guidelines
rcnpublishing.com/
r/nr-author-guidelines

Abstract
Aim To debate the definition and use of theoretical
and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research.

Background There is a paucity of literature to
help the novice researcher to understand what
theoretical and conceptual frameworks are and
how they should be used. This paper acknowledges
the interchangeable usage of these terms and
researchers’ confusion about the differences between
the two. It discusses how researchers have used
theoretical and conceptual frameworks and the
notion of conceptual models. Detail is given about
how one researcher incorporated a conceptual
framework throughout a research project, the
purpose for doing so and how this led to a resultant
conceptual model.

Review methods Concepts from Abbott (1988) and
Witz (1992) were used to provide a framework for
research involving two case study sites. The framework
was used to determine research questions and give
direction to interviews and discussions to focus
the research.

Discussion Some research methods do not overtly
use a theoretical framework or

R esearch
R o u n d ta b le Lynne M . C o n n e lly

Use o f Theoretical Frameworks
in Research

R eaders of research reports probably have noticed some studies explicitly name a theory that guided the research and some do not. It is not always clear
in reports what role the theory or theoretical framework
played (or did not play) in the research. In this issue,
Parker (2014) outlined a study about decision making by
medical-surgical nurses when they activate rapid response
teams. In the report, in the section called “Nurse Decision
Making,” the author concisely discussed theories of deci­
sion making and the models of decision making that oth­
ers have used to examine the topic with nurses. In addi­
tion, Parker used an instrument to measure decision mak­
ing based on these various decision-making models. This
report is a useful example of how theory guides research
and also makes sense of the subsequent findings.

W hat Is a theory?
First, various terms are used to refer to the theoretic

basis of a study, including theory, theoretical framework,
conceptual framework, and models. Theory is a set of inter­
related concepts (or variables) and definitions that are
formed into propositions or hypotheses to specify the
relationship among the constructs (Creswell, 2013). A for­
mal theory is well-developed and is useful to predict
behavior or outcomes. A theoretical framework or con­
ceptual framework is less formal and typically less devel­
oped than a formal theory. Such a framework often is use­
ful when exploratory work is being done to expand the
theoretical ideas. A conceptual model usually is focused
more narrowly and structured more loosely than theories,
and does not link concepts (Polit & Beck, 2014). For
example, the Lauri and Salantera (2002) instrum ent is
based on a model that describes how nurses make deci­
sions but does not predict how effective each type is in
making decisions. For the purposes of this column, I use
the general word theory to encompass all these terms.

In simple terms, a theory is a representation of a por­
tion of reality that helps us make sense of complex phe­
nomena. It is not the reality itself; it is a tool for better
understanding. Theories are not right or wrong but some
theories offer a better fit for particular situations. Each
theory can provide a different lens for looking at a prob­
lem, allowing it to be examined from different perspec­
tives for full understanding of all its facets (Reeves, Albert,
Kuper, & Hodges, 2008).

Lynne M. Connelly, PhD, RN, is Associate Professor and Director of
Nursing, Benedictine College, Atchison, KS. She is Research Editor for
MEDSURG Nursing.

MEDSURG n u r s in g . May-june 2014 • Vol. 23/No. 3

Theory in a study can be stated clearly or it can be
implied (Bond et al., 2011). For example, in physiological
studies, the framework usual