After reading chapters 5,6,7, and 8, answer the following question.

Discuss the purpose of the literature review and which topics are you going to search for your topic? Discuss also what are the challenges that nurses are facing today when they have to do a literature review?

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Chapter 5

Literature Reviews: Finding and Critiquing Evidence

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Question

Tell whether the statement is true or false:

A research literature review is a written summary of evidence on a research problem.

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Answer

True

A research literature review is a written summary of evidence on a research problem.

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Purposes of a Literature Review

  • Identification of a research problem
  • Orientation to what is known/not known
  • Determination of gaps or inconsistencies in a body of research
  • Determination of a need to replicate a study
  • Identification of clinical interventions that need to be tested

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Purposes of a Literature Review (cont.)

  • Identification of relevant conceptual frameworks for a research problem
  • Identification of suitable designs and data collection methods
  • Identification of experts who could be used as consultants on a project
  • Assistance in interpreting findings and developing implications

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Sources of Information in a Research Literature Review

  • Principal reliance on primary sources (research reports written by researchers who conducted the study)
  • Less reliance on secondary sources (summaries of studies by others)
  • Peripheral use of anecdotal reports, opinion articles, case reports

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Question

Tell whether the statement is true or false:

An ancestry approach uses pivotal studies to search forward to subsequent studies that cited it.

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Answer

False

Ancestry approach: tracking down earlier studies cited in a reference list of a report

Descendancy approach: using a pivotal study to search forward to subsequent studies that cited it

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Chapter 6

Theoretical Frameworks

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

A theory is an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenomena.

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Answer

True

A theory is an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenomena.

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Question

What is a descriptive theory?

An abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena

A theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich observations of it

A theory attempt to describe large segments of the human experience

 A theory that focuses on a specific aspect of human experience

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Answer

B

Classical theory: an abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena

Descriptive theory: a theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich observations of it

Grand theory: a theory that attempts to explain large aspects of human experience

Middle-range theory: a theory that focuses on a specific aspect of human experience

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Theory

An abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenomena

  • Classical theory: an abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena
  • Descriptive theory: a theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich observations of it 

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Theory (cont.)

  • Grand theory: a theory that attempts to explain large aspects of human experience
  • Middle-range theory: a theory that focuses on a specific aspect of human experience

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Schematic models are graphic, theory-driven representations of phenomena and their interrelationship

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Chapter 7

Ethics in Nursing Research

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

An ethical dilemma occurs when a situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements for a rigorous study.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

An ethical dilemma is situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements for a rigorous study.

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Ethical Dilemma in Conducting Research

  • A situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements for a rigorous study

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

The Nuremberg Code serves as the basis for regulations affecting research sponsored by the U.S. government.

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Answer

False

The Belmont Report serves as the basis for regulations affecting research sponsored by the U.S. government. The Nuremberg Code was an international effort to establish ethical standards.

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Code of Ethics

  • Nuremberg Code  
  • Declaration of Helsinki  
  • Belmont Report  
  • Codes for professional disciplines (e.g., by the American Nurses Association, American Psychological Association)  

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Question

What is nonmaleficence?

Performance of some good

Protection from physical and psychological harm and exploitation

Participants right to self-determination

Freedom to control their own actions

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Answer

B

Beneficence involves the performance of some good, and the protection of participants from physical and psychological harm and exploitation is nonmaleficence. Respect for human dignity i

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Chapter 8

Planning a Nursing Study

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

The major methodologic challenge in designing a qualitative study is that it is reliable and valid.

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Answer

False

Researchers face numerous conceptual, practical, ethical, and methodologic challenges in planning a study. The major methodologic challenge is designing a study that is reliable and valid (quantitative studies) or trustworthy (qualitative studies).

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Validity refers to the accuracy and consistency of information obtained in a study.

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Answer

False

Reliability refers to the accuracy and consistency of information obtained in a study. Validity is a more complex concept that broadly concerns the soundness of the study’s evidence.

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Key Challenges of Doing Research

  • Conceptual
  • Financial
  • Administrative
  • Practical
  • Ethical
  • Clinical
  • Methodologic

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Major Methodologic Challenge

Designing studies that are:

  • Reliable and valid (quantitative studies)
  • Trustworthy (qualitative studies)

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Criteria for Evaluating Quantitative Research

  • Reliability

The accuracy and consistency of obtained information

Validity

The soundness of the evidence—whether findings are convincing, well-grounded

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Confirmability refers to evidence of the researcher’s objectivity.

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