01/20 .

After reading chapters 9,10,11, and 12, answer the next question.

Suppose you are going to conduct a study utilizing Quantitative Research Design: which type of research would you use, and which method would you utilize to collect data?

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 9

Quantitative Research Design

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Many qualitative nursing studies aim to elucidate cause-and-effect relationships.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Many quantitative not qualitative nursing studies aim to elucidate cause-and-effect relationships.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Counterfactual is what would have happened to the same people simultaneously exposed and not exposed to the causal factor.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

Counterfactual is what would have happened to the same people simultaneously exposed and not exposed to the causal factor.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

The Counterfactual Method

  • The counterfactual is what would have happened to the same people simultaneously exposed and not exposed to the causal factor.
  • Effect represents the difference between the two.

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Causality

  • The counterfactual method
  • Criteria for causality—Lazarsfeld (1955)

1. Temporal

2. Empirical relationship

3. Relationship cannot be explained as
being caused by a third variable

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Experiments or Randomized Controlled Trial Properties

Manipulation

Control

Randomization

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Manipulation

  • Doing something to study participants
  • Experimenter manipulates the independent variable by administering a treatment (intervention) to some subjects and withholding it from others, or by administering some other treatment.

*

<

Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 10

Rigor and Validity in
Quantitative Research

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Validity and Validity Threats

  • Validity: the approximate truth of inference
  • Threats to validity are reasons that an inference could be wrong.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Types of Validity

  • Statistical conclusion validity
  • Internal validity
  • Construct validity
  • External validity

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Controlling Intrinsic Source
of Confounding Variability

  • Randomization
  • Crossover
  • Homogeneity
  • Stratification/blocking
  • Matching (pair matching)
  • Statistical control

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Benefits and Limitations of Control Methods: Randomization

Benefits:

  • Controls all preintervention confounding variables
  • Does not require advance knowledge of which variables to control

Limitations:

  • Ethical and practical constraints on variables that can be manipulated
  • Possible artificiality of conditions

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Benefits and Limitations of Control Methods: Crossover (Repeated Measures)

Benefits:

  • If done with randomization, strongest possible approach

Limitations:

  • Cannot be used if there are possible carryover effects from one condition to another
  • History threat may be relevant if external factors change over time.

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Benefits and Limitations of Control Methods: Homogeneity

Benefits:

  • Easy to achieve in all types of research
  • Enhances interpretability of relationships

Limitations:

  • Limits generalizability
  • Requires knowledge of which variables to control
  • Range restriction could lower statistical conclusion validity.

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 11

Specific Types of
Quantitative Research

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Phase I clinical trials involve seeking opportunities for refinements and preliminary evidence of efficacy.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Phase II clinical trials involve seeking opportunities for refinements and preliminary evidence of efficacy. Phase I features of the intervention that are finalized.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Clinical Trials

  • Effectiveness of clinical interventions
  • Phase I
  • Phase II
  • Phase III
  • Phase IV

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Sequential Clinical Trial

  • Data from paired “mini-experiments”
  • Continuously analyzed
  • Preference measures
  • Stopping rules

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Practical clinical trials aim to reduce the gap between efficacy and effectiveness studies.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Practical clinical trials are designed to provide information to clinical decision makers.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Practical Clinical Trials

  • Also called pragmatic clinical trials
  • Provide information to clinical decision makers

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Evaluation Research

  • Effectiveness of a program, policy, procedure
  • Assist decision makers

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

What is the purpose of an outcome analysis?

Describes the status of some condition after the introduction of a program

Tests whether a program causes net impacts

Describes the process by which a program gets implemented and functions in practice

Assesses w

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 12

Sampling in Quantitative Research

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested is called a sample.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested is called a population. A sample is selection of a portion of the population to represent the entire population.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Basic Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Studies

Population: the aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested

Sampling: selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population 

Element: basic population unit about which information is collected

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Eligibility Criteria

  • Establish population characteristics
  • Determine participation in study
  • Maximize construct validity
  • Inclusion
  • Exclusion

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Researchers usually sample from the target population.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Researchers usually sample from the accessible population but should identify the target population to which they want to generalize their results.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Basic Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Studies

Representative sample

A sample whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the population

Sampling bias

The systematic over- or underrepresentation of segments of the population on key variables

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Probability sampling involves random selection of elements.